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Kamp Vught
Kamp Amersfoort
Auschwitz
Neuengamme
Sachsenhausen
Natzweiler
Salzgitter
Ravensbrück
Mauthausen
Buchenwald
Dachau
Bergen-Belsen
AEL
Oranje-Hotel
 
The song of the eighteen dead


wikimedia

Buchenwald, 1945

Concentration Camps

The National Socialist economy was parasitic. It was essentially based on forced labor and, after the beginning of the war, on the plundering of the occupied territories. The worst form of forced labor took place in the concentration camps.
Very soon after the Nazis came to power in 1933, they started to set up concentration camps. The first camp inmates were political opponents (communists, socialists, clergy and other critics of the system), later followed by Sinti and Roma (Wikipedia Porajmos), homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, mentally handicapped and alleged "asocials" (Aktion T4) [1]. After the beginning of the war, the prisoner-of-war camps were added, where the treatment of Russians in particular was not different from that in the other camps. In Poland and Belarus, the extermination camps [2] were erected, which primarily aimed at the industrial extermination of people, especially Jews and Roma. Because this is about the resistance in Limburg, only the extermination camp Auschwitz is listed below, where also resisters from Limburg were murdered.
These camps were not only intended to lock up political opponents, people considered inferior, and prisoners of war. Because a large part of the German men had to go to the front, there was a shortage of labor in industry and agriculture, which the prisoners were supposed to make up for. Because of this dual objective, however, historians and the legal system clearly distinguish forced labor in concentration camps [3] from the open forced labor camps, which had the "only" purpose of exploitation. Towards the end of the war, when the SS began to clear the camps in panic before the approaching Allied troops (death marches [4]) and to combine them, these distinctions became blurred.

Wikipedia

  1. Aktion T4 • NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  2. VernietigingskampenVernichtungslagerExtermination campsCentres d’exterminationCampos de extermínio
  3. Economie van nazi-Duitsland: DwangarbeidNS-ZwangsarbeitForced labor in Nazi concentration camps Travail forcé dans les camps de concentration nazisTrabalho forçado na Alemanha Nazi
  4. DodenmarsenTodesmärscheDeath marchesMarches de la mortMarchas de la muerte (Español)

Many resistance members from Limburg and elsewhere were transported to a concentration camp, usually in Germany, after their arrest and eventual conviction in a show trial, and many of them never returned. These camps were often part of a system of main and subcamps.
These satellite camps were usually located near or within factories to which prisoners were rented as slaves by SS-Totenkopfverbände at a high profit, or near construction sites of defense installations, e.g., near Ladelund, a satellite camp of Neuengamme for the prisoners who had to build the Friesenwall, which was never put into operation, e.g., Charles Bongaerts.
Listed below are the concentration camps where most of Limburg’s resistance people were murdered. To begin with, a Verzeichnis der Konzentrationslager und ihrer Außenkommandos (list of concentration camps and their subcamps) from the German Ministry of Justice with all the camps, and an explanation from Wikipedia, what such a subcamp actually was.


wikimedia

  Auschwitz /Oświęcim

Fence with high voltage barbed wire in Auschwitz concentration camp I

The assassinated resistance fighters from Limburg of Jewish origin all died in Auschwitz, except Rudolf Bloemgarten, who was shot in the dunes near Bloemendaal. The first Auschwitz camp was located near the Polish town of Oświęcim [1][2]. It was a former Polish barracks and was originally set up as a concentration camp for Polish resistance fighters and criminals from Silesia. Later, other camps and factories were added, including those of IG Farben.
The entire Sperrgebiet with work camps of Auschwitz eventually covered 40 square kilometers.
In Auschwitz, the first experiments were conducted to use the disinfectant Zyklon B as a means of mass murder.

  1. Open Street Map
  2. Wikipedia: Oświęcim
  3. International Auschwitz Committee DeutschEnglishFrançaisPolsku Międzynarodowy Komitet Oświęcimski
  4. Wikipedia: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês

1942-08-14 David Leo Cahn † Auschwitz
1943-01-31 Ernst Berets † Auschwitz
1945-01-21 Gerard L.R. Soesman † Auschwitz/Oświęcim
1945-03-15 Louis van Blijdestein † Auschwitz

  Neuengamme

Neuengamme was a whole system of camps under the control of the SS, which made a lot of money from it. The main camp was located near Hamburg [1][2]. One of the subcamps was the Kommando Neustadt in the Lübeck Bay near Neustadt.
During the week of April 18-26, 1945, 5000 prisoners and SS guards from Neuengamme were taken from there aboard the Cap Arcona on the ship Athen. The same was done with the ship Thielbek (2800 prisoners from Neuengamme) and the ship Deutschland IV. What the SS’s intentions were in doing so has never been clarified with certainty.
The ships were bombed by the Allies in the last days of the war, on May 3, 1945. They assumed that these were troop ships, and perhaps that was exactly the purpose behind it. After all, the ships in fact had nowhere to go. In this way, the SS probably hoped to get rid of these troublesome prisoners in an easy way. After all, many shipwrecked prisoners were slaughtered while still in the water [3].
The largest subcamp to Neuengamme was in Salzgitter. There, so many resistance fighters, prisoners of war and others were forced to work in heavy industry that you will find an additional section for Salzgitter below. Other subcamps were Ladelund [4] and Sandbostel [5].


wikimedia:
Cap Arcona 3-5-1945
  1. Open Street Map
  2. Website: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisEspañol
  3. Cap Ancona (Wikipedia) NederlandsDeutschEspañol
  4. Außenlager Ladelund (Wikipedia): Deutsch
    Website EnglishDeutsch
  5. Sandbostel Stalag X-B (Wikipedia) NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançais

1942-01-10 Bernhard Holty /Holtij † Neuengamme
1942-05-15 Peter Johannes Sijbers † Neuengamme
1942-06-22 Lambert Kraft † Neuengamme
1942-11-06 Johan Theodoor van Veldhoven † Neuengamme
1942-11-07 H.Peter Schillings † Neuengamme
1942-11-12 Mans Dorst † Neuengamme
1942-11-14 Hein Tholen † Neuengamme
1942-11-14 Maricus van de Wetering † Neuengamme
1942-11-17 Engelbert Joseph Vinerius /Vienerius † Neuengamme
1942-12-01 Pierre Dresen † Neuengamme
1942-12-04 Egbert Wolf † Neuengamme
1942-12-05 Bernard Th. Gotjé † Neuengamme
1942-12-13 Johan/Johann Krol/Kroll † Neuengamme
1942-12-14 Roelf H. Bartels † KZ Neuengamme
1942-12-14 Johan Schillings † Neuengamme
1943-01-02 Gerrit J. van der Gronden † Neuengamme
1943-01-04 Douwe Verhagen † Neuengamme
1943-01-07 Jos Narinx † Neuengamme
1943-01-15 Hendrik Keesman † Neuengamme
1943-01-21 Nol Tersteeg † Neuengamme
1943-02-05 Hendrik A.C. Meulensteen † Neuengamme
1943-02-11 Guido Droitcourt † Hauptlager Neuengamme
1943-02-12 André Bos † Neuengamme
1943-03-01 Frans Jozef Schaaks † Neuengamme
1943-03-04 Jan M. Duijnkerke /Duin… /Duyn… † Neuengamme
1943-03-19 Gerrit Jansen † Neuengamme
1943-03-29 Sjef Janssen † Hamburg-Neuengamme
1943-04-03 Dirk Hage † Neuengamme
1943-04-30 Albert Koenders † Neuengamme
1943-05-02 Stephanus Hubertus Vallen † Neuengamme
1943-05-25 Elbertus Frederikus Busch † Neuengamme
1943-05-25 Petrus Frantzen † Neuengamme
1944-11-08 Mathieu Marie Joseph Antoine Dumoulin † Fuhlsbüttel Neuengamme
1944-11-19 Pieter Mathijs Erkens † Neuengamme
1944-11-23 Charles M.H.J. Bongaerts † KZ Ladelund, KZ Neuengamme
1944-11-23 Mathias Hendrikus Timmermans † Kdo Husum-Schwesing, Neuengamm
1944-11-24 (Ed)Mond Houtappel † Neuengamme
1944-11-25 Leo Moonen † Neuengamme
1944-12-15 Emilius Antonius Hubertus Maria Merckelbach /Merkelbach † Neuengamme
1944-12-19 Hendrik Kammeraat † Neuengamme
1944-12-25 Karel Hendrik Cobben † Neuengamme
1944-12-27 Jacques Joseph Carlos Marie Luske † Hamburg-Neuengamme
1944-12-31 Jacob Schutte † Neuengamme
1945-01-04 Hendricus Fredericus Jan Hokke † Neuengamme
1945-01-04 Jozef van Hövell tot Westerflier † Meppen (sub. Neuengamme)
1945-01-04 Theo Pérée † Neuengamme
1945-01-11 Dominicus Hylarius /Hilarius Ettema † Neuengamme
1945-01-14 Johan Beyleveld † Neuengamme
1945-01-20 Piet van Rhee † Neuengamme
1945-01-22 Fons Berger † Neuengamme
1945-01-22 Martin Hubertus Driessen † KZ Neuengamme, Bergedorf
1945-01-24 Arie van den Munckhof † Neuengamme
1945-02-06 Wilhelmus Hub. Hoeben † Kdo. Meppen-Versen (Neuengamme
1945-02-06 Eelco Kortrijk † Neuengamme
1945-02-11 Jo S.H. Lokerman † Neuengamme
1945-02-18 Hermanus Bernardus Arnoldus Geerlings † Hamburg-Neuengamme
1945-02-20 Peter van Eijk † Neuengamme
1945-02-22 Jan van Hout † Neuengamme
1945-02-22 Jan (Johannes Franciscus) van Hout † KZ Neuengamme
1945-02-24 Antoon Gerrit Guillaume van Hilten † Neuengamme
1945-03-01 Jan Alphons Dieteren † Neuengamme
1945-03-03 Leendert L. Sluymers † Hamburg-Neuengamme
1945-03-10 Lambertus C.M. Ravenhorst † Neuengamme
1945-03-12 Max Meiler † Neuengamme
1945-03-14 Hendrikus Antonius Hubertus Brouwers † Neuengamme
1945-03-20 Wouter Hoogakker † Kdo. Meppen-Versen (Neuengamme
1945-04-01 Gerhardus A. Erdkamp † Neuengamme
1945-04-03 Willem /Willy Putman † Kdo. Meppen-Versen (Neuengamme
1945-04-24 Peter Will † Transport vanuit Neuengamme
1945-04-25 Daniël van Vugt † Kdo. Sandbostel, Neuengamme
1945-05-03 Arnold van Geenen † KZ Neustadt, Neuengamme
1945-05-03 Lambert /Bert van Lee † Lübecker Bucht
1945-05-03 Hubertus Hendrikus Ritzen † Lübeckerbucht
1945-05-03 Hein Senster † Lübecker Bucht
1945-05-05 Johannes Mathias Schreurs † Neuengamme
1945-05-06 Johannes Theodorus Antonius Martens † Kdo. Sandbostel, Neuengamme
1945-05-06 Mathias Hubertus Ummels † Neuengamme


Wikimedia

Asput Kamp Vught [5]

  Kamp Vught

Kamp Vught, called Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch by the occupiers because it was located near ’s-Hertogenbosch, was the only SS concentration camp outside Germany. Today a part of the former camp is the national memorial Kamp Vught.

From Vught, among others, 15,000 Jews were deported, almost none of whom survived the war. For the Jews, Camp Vught was a transit camp. Most Jews were deported to Westerbork in the province of Drenthe and from there to the German death camps in Poland. [1]

Actually, the Germans wanted to make a model camp out of Vught afterwards, because of the public opinion in the Netherlands. The Nazis obviously still hoped to be able to win them over to their side. But this went thoroughly wrong on January 15, 1944 under the sadistic commander in chief Hauptsturmführer Adam Grünewald.
More information can be found on the page about the bunker tragedy. [2]

In August and September 1944, as the Allies approached, at least 450 resistance members were executed on the shooting range of the Vught camp in the nearby forest. Many resistance members from Limburg also fell victim to these executions, including the top members of the LO who had been arrested in Weert on June 21, 1944. These Deppner executions [3] reached their peak around Dolle Dinsdag [4]. When the Allies arrived, the camp was abandoned. Thousends of prisoners had been deported to Germany, the men to concentration camp Sachsenhausen and the women to concentration camp Ravensbrück. [1]

At the former shooting range, there is a monument and a memorial wall with the names of the people who were shot there. [9]
The asputten (ash pits) behind the crematorium in camp Vught contain the mortal remains of those who were killed there. [5]

  1. BHIC (Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum) Concentratiekamp Vught
  2. Bunker Tragedy
    Wikipedia: NederlandsDeutschEnglish
  3. Wikipedia NL : Deppner-executies
  4. Wikipedia: Dolle Dinsdag NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisEspañol
  5. tracesofwar.nl Asputten
  6. Website: NederlandsNederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançais
  7. Wikipedia Kamp Vught DeutschEnglish Español
  8. Kamp Open Street Map
  9. Fusilladeplaats Lunettenlaan 600, 5260 AA, Vught
    https://www.4en5mei.nl/oorlogsmonumenten/zoeken/2074/vught-monument-op-de-fusilladeplaats

1943-01-27 Jan Hendriks † kamp Vught
1943-02-16 Jules Louis Antoine van Oppen † Vught
1943-02-24 Chris Heuts † Kamp Vught
1943-04-23 Emma Horn † Vught
1943-11-22 Franciscus Hubertus Antonius Henderson † kamp Vught
1944-01-16 Nelly Adriana Jeannette de Bode † Vught
1944-07-21 Antonius Johannes Kuerten † Vught
1944-07-21 Jean Maurice Muller † Kamp Vught
1944-08-11 André Gubbels † Kamp Vught
1944-08-11 Jacobus Everhardus Janssen † Vught
1944-08-11 Johannes Antonius Linders † Kamp Vught
1944-08-11 Cornelis Klaas Noordermeer † kamp Vught
1944-08-11 Nicolaas Cornelis van Oosterhout † Kamp Vught
1944-08-11 Marcel Stoffels † Vught
1944-08-19 Jan Dahmen † Vught
1944-08-19 Gerard Antoon Smulders † Vught
1944-08-30 Harry Miltenburg † Kamp Vught
1944-09-04 Marinus Spillenaar Bilgen † Vught
1944-09-05 Karel C. van Berckel † Kamp Vught
1944-09-05 Henricus Joannes Hubertus Boers † Vught
1944-09-05 Josephus Johannes Stephanus Boers † Vught
1944-09-05 Constant Jozef Ernest Cornips † Kamp Vught
1944-09-05 Wiel Grooten † Kamp Vught
1944-09-05 Joseph van Hulst † kamp Vught
1944-09-05 Henry /Harry Meijer † Vught
1944-09-05 Frans Nies † Vught
1944-09-05 Wim A. Rooyackers /Rooijackers † Vught
1944-09-05 Karel Simmelink † Vught
1944-09-05 Johannes Franciscus Snijders † Vught
1944-09-05 Jacques J. de Weert † Kamp Vught
1944-09-05 Oscar Wolters † Vught
1944-09-08 Johan Guelen † Kamp Vught
1944-09-08 Hendrikus Fredericus Hendriks † Vught
1944-09-08 Jan J. Hendriks † Vught


Wikimedia

  Sachsenhausen

Sachsenhausen 1943. Source: 542 Squadron (RAF) →

The Sachsenhausen concentration camp was set up in the town of Oranienburg, north of Berlin, starting in 1936 [1]. The Olympic Games were held in Berlin at the same time. It is not identical to the Oranienburg concentration camp, which previously (1933 to 1934) existed at a different location, in Oranienburg too. Sachsenhausen was named after the suburb with the same name [2].
It was planned in the shape of a triangle so that the whole compound could be controlled from the main gate with one single machine gun. See the aerial photograph by the Royal Air Force from 1943 and Open Street Map. [1]

On May 11, 1942, the executions of the convicts from the so-called first OD trial [3], which took place partly in Maastricht, took place in Sachsenhausen. The 24 people sentenced to death in Maastricht were transported on May 9, 1942, and were shot in Sachsenhausen, probably at the Hinrichtungsgraben (execution trench). They are partly on this list, even though they had no further connection with Limburg. They were largely members of the OD or Ordedienst [4], hence the name of the trial. In Maastricht and Amersfoort, a total of 65 OD members and 10 members of the group around Herman Bolt were sentenced to death. Of these, 63 sentences were confirmed in Utrecht and executed in Sachsenhausen.

  1. Open Street Map
  2. Wikipedia, KZ Sachsenhausen : NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  3. 1. OD-proces, Maastricht
    2. Het eerste OD-proces
  4. Ordedienst
  5. Website: DeutschEnglish
  6. Wikipedia, List of subcamps Sachsenhausen • EnglishDeutschFrançais

0000-00-00 Harry Holla † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1942-05-03 Richard Leonard Arnold Schoemaker † Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg)
1942-05-03 Willem Louis Voncken † Sachsenhausen
1942-05-11 Johan Bakker † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Willem de Boer † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Berend ten Bosch † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Jacob Buikes † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Wilhelmus Fredericus Burger † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Antoine Pierre Marie Fauchey † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Gerard Catharinus van Grootheest † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Tijmen Bastiaan Huurman † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Willem Christiaan Albert Kroes † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Petrus Josephus Maria Kuntz † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Jacob Lopes de Leaô Laguna † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Johan George Alexander van Medenbach de Rooy † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Johan Coenraad Meijer † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Bernardus Marcus Miché † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Arnold Michels † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Pieter Johannes Schuijl † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Jaap Sickenga † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Alex Klaas Smidt † Sachsenhausen
1942-05-11 Harmen Smink † Sachsenhausen
1942-05-11 Daniel Johan Smit † Sachsenhausen
1942-05-11 Nicolaas van der Stad † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Ludovicus Franciscus Verstrijden † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Cornelis van ’t Woudt † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Johannes J. Zomer † Oranienburg
1942-12-13 Victor Quaedvlieg † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1943-01-13 Godefriedus Henricus Konings † KZ Sachsenhausen
1943-03-02 Karel Joseph Diederen † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1944-04-18 M.J. (Sjef) Haan † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1944-09-02 Guus Hermans † KZ Sachsenhausen
1944-09-13 Johannes Franz Vuist † Sachsenhausen
1944-11-15 Ant. M. Schilte † Sachsenhausen,
1944-12-08 Joseph W. Ummels † Sachsenhausen
1944-12-29 Hub Hamers † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1945-01-06 Petrus Antonius Josephus Janssens † KZ Sachsenhausen
1945-02-02 Ferdinand Marie Joseph Hubert van Oppen † Sachsenhausen
1945-02-13 Johan Anno Heesbeen † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1945-02-15 Willem Plas † Oranienburg, Sachsenhausen
1945-02-23 Giel /Gel Duijckers /Duijkers † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1945-03-15 Jan van Soest † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1945-05-03 Jan J. Hendrikx /Hendrickx † Oranienburg/Sachsenhausen

Wikimedia

  Natzweiler

Right: Memorial plaque for the 86 Jews who were transferred from Auschwitz to Natzweiler and then gassed for pseudo-scientific experiments by Professor Hirt in August 1943

The Natzweiler-Struthof camp [1][2] included about 70 subcamps in the regions of Alsace and Moselle (now French again) as well as across the border in Germany, for example in Dautmergen. It had been declared a Nacht- und Nebellager (night and fog camp). People were supposed to disappear there without a trace. As a rule, they were resistance members from all over occupied Europe. Their relatives were never to be informed when they had died. [3]
The people listed below were all imprisoned at Natzweiler, but some were later transferred and died elsewhere, as you can see from the list.

  1. Open Street Map
  2. Wikipedia Natzweiler: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisEspañol
  3. Wikipedia Nacht und Nebel: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisEspañol

1942-09-14 Hendricus Leonardus Hubertus Rijnders † Dachau (D)
1944-03-03 Jan Joseph Roks (Rocks?) † Natzweiler-Struthof
1944-07-11 Niek Benedic † Natzweiler
1944-12-07 Johan Herman Lubben † Bergen-Belsen
1945-01-07 Charles Spreksel † KZ Schömberg, KZ Natzweiler
1945-02-08 Jozef J.G. Partouns † Vaihingen
1945-02-13 Jean-Michel Caubo † Natzweiler, Außenkommando Daut
1945-02-20 Jan Brinkman † Dachau
1945-04-27 Paulus Anthonius Engeln † KZ Mauthausen-Ebensee
1945-05-06 Gerard Tielen † Dachau

Wikimedia

  Salzgitter

Company logo of the Hermann-Göring-Werke, in use by Salzgitter AG until the 1980s and in use by Salzgitter Maschinenbau AG until today.

In order to exploit the large iron ore deposits in the Salzgitter area, which were first mentioned as early as 1310, the National Socialists founded the Reichswerke Hermann Göring (Hermann-Göring-Werke) [1] on July 15, 1937. Salzgitter was renamed Hermann-Göring-Stadt in the process. A major territorial reform and numerous industrial settlements were the result. During the Second World War, many forced laborers were also employed here. They were severely endangered by their miserable working conditions, but also by numerous Allied bombardments.
There were many residential and labor camps in the Salzgitter area. In the long run, they usually became concentration camps. [2]
Salzgitter-Drütte was the largest one. It was one of the many subcamps of the Neuengamme concentration camp system, located on the factory premises of the Hermann-Göring-Werke, next to Drütte, a village of Salzgitter and held 2,800 inmates. [3][7]
Special camp 21 (Arbeitserziehungslager Watenstedt-Hallendorf) (labor “education” camp!) was set up by the "Göringwerke" in March 1940 as a punishment camp for foreign forced laborers and to deter and discipline the German population near Hallendorf a village of Salzgitter. A particularly harsh and feared punishment was the work in the red-hot slag in Salzgitter-Drütte, which the prisoners called "Schlacke-Drütte". During this work, death or severe burns or also gas poisoning were intended. At least 300 prisoners lost their lives as a result only of this work. The guard Fritz Panske alone shot 60 prisoners at the Schlacke-Drütte command.
Lager 24 in Reppner was originally intended as a housing camp for construction workers, but was later converted into a concentration camp and was soon called “Death Camp 24.” [5]
The village of Watenstedt had 380 inhabitants in 1933. This changed abruptly with the development of the Hermann Göring Works and the nearby Braunschweig steelworks starting in 1937. Numerous labor camps sprang up around Watenstedt; at the end of August 1943, 16,992 residents were reported [6].

  1. Wikipedia Reichswerke Hermann Göring: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  2. Wikipedia D: Liste der Wohn- und Arbeitslager im Salzgittergebiet
  3. Wikipedia KZ-Außenlager Salzgitter-Drütte : DeutschFrançais
  4. Wikipedia D: Arbeitserziehungslager_Hallendorf
    Hallendorf Open Street Map
  5. Wikipedia D: Reppner, Lager_24
    Reppner Open Street Map
  6. Wikipedia D: Watenstedt, Bevölkerungsentwicklung
  7. Salzgitter AG, ex Hermann Göring Werke Salzgitter Open Street Map
  8. Gedenk- und Dokumentationsstätte KZ Drütte NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisEspañol

1944-11-22 Lodewijk Franssen † Salzgitter-Watenstedt
1945-01-30 Antoon van der Burgt † Salzgitter-Watenstedt
1945-02-02 Piet Billekens † Salzgitter-Drütte
1945-02-18 Peter (Piet) Roodbeen † Salzgitter-Watenstedt
1945-03-11 Hendrik Hoeymakers /Hoeijmakers † Salzgitter-Reppner
1945-05-07 Jozef Baeten † Salzgitter-Barum

Vrouwen van Ravensbrück
1. Wikimedia

 

2. Wikimedia

  Ravensbrück

Picture 1 : Vrouwen van RavensbrückWomen of Ravensbrück) is a memorial located in the east of the Museumplein in Amsterdam to commemorate those who were murdered and perished in the Ravensbrück Nazi concentration camp.
Picture 2: Site plan of the concentration camp Ravensbrück with Siemens camp [4] and «Jugendschutzlager Uckermark» for girls and young women [3]

The Ravensbrück women’s concentration camp was part of a camp complex, eighty-five kilometers north of Berlin [1]. Ravensbrück was built in the fall of 1938 by prisoners of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
It was the largest concentration camp for women in the so-called German Altreich at the time of National Socialism [2]. Together with the men’s camp located in the immediate vicinity, industrial plants, the Uckermark concentration camp for girls and young women [3], and the Ravensbrück Siemens camp [4], the only industrial site located in a concentration camp, Ravensbrück concentration camp formed a camp complex. In addition, a large number of subcamps existed, see List of Ravensbrück Concentration Camp Subcamps [5].

  1. Open Street Map
  2. Wikipedia : NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  3. Wikipedia KZ Uckermark: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  4. Wikipedia D: Siemenslager Ravensbrück
  5. Wikipedia D: Liste der Außenlager des KZ Ravensbrück

1944-01-24 Anna Pijnacker Hordijk † Ravensbruck
1944-09-11 Marie Hubertina Theodora Vliexs † Opglabbeek (B)
1945-02-06 Jenny Tripels † Ravensbrück
1945-02-18 Berendje van Assen-Grolleman † Ravensbrück
1945-02-19 Jacqueline Henrica Smeets-Hendrickx † KZ Ravensbrück
1945-03-17 Jacoba Maria Pulskens † Ravensbrück
1945-07-11 Hélène Schoenmaeckers † Sankt Gallen (CH)


 
Wiener Graben
wikimedia

  Mauthausen

Picture 1: Link to a map with the subcamps of Mauthausen.
  Source: mauthausen-memorial.org [2].
Picture 2: The quarry Wiener Graben [1.2.], Mauthausen

Beginning on August 8, 1938, five months after the "Anschluss" of Austria to the German Reich, the Mauthausen concentration camp was established near an existing granite quarry. The prisoners were to quarry granite for the Nazis’ pompous buildings, under the harshest regime that existed for the camps: "Camp Level III." The same thing happened at the Gusen subcamp [4]. A large network of subcamps was created, spread all over Austria, working for the German armaments industry. Click on the adjacent map to enlarge it [2]. The prisoners in the first two camps at Mauthausen and Gusen were mainly political opponents such as resistance fighters.
Starting in May 1944, Jewish prisoners from Hungary and Poland were deported to Mauthausen in large numbers. They had the least chance of survival.
Between the establishment of the camp in August 1938 and its liberation by the US Army in May 1945, almost 190,000 people were deported to Mauthausen. Of these, at least 90,000 have died. [2] The Greek poet Iakovos Kambanellis, a survivor of the Mauthausen concentration camp, wrote about it the cycle Μαουτχάουζεν (Mauthausen), which was made world famous by the composer Mikis Theodorakis. The music was performed several times in the former concentration camp, among others. [7]

One example of the many satellite camps: in 1942/43, two camps were built on the north and south sides of the Loibl Pass as satellite camps of the Mauthausen concentration camp: Loibl North and Loibl South. The camp inmates transferred from Mauthausen to the Loibl concentration camp were used to build the Loibl tunnel. [5]

The Greek poet Iakovos Kambanellis, a survivor of the Mauthausen concentration camp, wrote about it the cycle Μαουτχάουζεν (Mauthausen), which was made world famous by the composer Mikis Theodorakis. The music was performed several times in the former concentration camp, among others. [7]

  1. Open Street Map :
    1. KZ-Gedenkstätte Mauthausen, Erinnerungsstraße 1, 4310 Mauthausen
    2. Wiener Graben (Granitsteinbruch Mauthausen)
    3. Gusen III - Außenlager von KZ Mauthausen
    4. KZ EbenseeEbensee KZ-Gedenkstollen
  2. Website: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançais • Español
  3. Wikipedia KZ Mauthausen: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  4. KZ Gusen:
    WikipediaDeutschEnglishFrançaisEspañol
    KZ Gusen, KZ Gusen Memorial Committee (english)
  5. KZ-Gedenkstätte Loibl
    Loibl-Nord Open Street Map
  6. Wikipedia, KZ-Ebensee: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançais • Español
  7. Ballad of Mauthausen
    Wikipedia DeutschEnglish
    YouTube, 2 songs from Mauthausen Andonis, Asma Asmaton Theodorakis / Farandouri, live in Pireaus
  8. holocaustmusic.ort.org Mauthausen

1944-09-07 Kees Droogleever-Fortuyn † Mauthausen
1945-02-10 Jan Ubachs † Mauthausen Gusen
1945-03-01 Leo Dael † Mauthausen
1945-03-02 Cornelis Gijsbertus Peters † Mauthausen
1945-03-05 Antonius Lodewijk Joseph Mooren † Mauthausen
1945-03-05 Math Speetjens † Mauthausen
1945-03-09 Jan Dael † Mauthausen
1945-03-09 Tom Schiphorst † Mauthausen
1945-03-25 Willem Heber † Mauthausen
1945-04-05 Sjeng Tholen † Mauthausen (A)
1945-04-11 Martinus Hubertus Brouns † Mauthausen
1945-04-27 Paulus Anthonius Engeln † KZ Mauthausen-Ebensee
1945-05-02 Sef Pernot † Mauthausen?


Wikimedia

  Buchenwald

The last preserved shack 

Buchenwald concentration camp, officially KL Buchenwald, was one of the largest concentration camps on German soil. It was in operation between July 1937 and April 1945 on the Ettersberg near Weimar. In total, about 266,000 people from all European countries were imprisoned there during this period. The death toll is estimated at about 56,000. [2] Medical experiments were carried out, for example by infecting prisoners with diseases to test vaccines. Or war wounds were inflicted on them to try out treatment methods. Most satellite camps, like the main camp, were assigned to a specific production, with prisoners being massively exploited and sometimes murdered. Yet, of course, they were not labor camps like the open forced labor camps, but concentration camps. [3] There were many resistance fighters among the prisoners. It is therefore not surprising that they organized themselves even during their imprisonment. Towards the end of the war with growing success. They hid Jewish children and thus saved them from the death camp, they also sabotaged other deportations to death camps, they arranged a radio station with which they contacted the approaching Allies. During an air raid in August 1944, they managed to steal and hide weapons. However, it was clear to them that they could not yet enter open combat with the SS. Consequently, they could not prevent 28,000 people from the main camp and at least 10,000 prisoners from the sub-camps from being sent away on death marches and "evacuation trains" via about 60 routes between April 7 and 10, 1945. Between 12,000 and 15,000 people died as a result. When American troops approached on April 11, 1945, and some of the SS guards had to fight, the resistance group arrested 125 SS men and declared the camp liberated.

  1. Open Street Map Gedenkstätte Buchenwald Weimar, Thüringen, 99427, Deutschland
  2. Wikipedia: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  3. Liste der Außenlager des KZ Buchenwald

1942-12-09 Kees (Cornelis) Rombouts † Buchenwald
1943-04-05 Dirk Snippe † Buchenwald (Weimar)
1943-04-06 Lubbert Bos † KZ Buchenwald
1944-02-24 Carlos M. Nieuwland † Buchenwald
1944-05-11 Louis Joseph Gulikers † Bitterfeld (Buchenwald)
1944-08-30 Hub. Kerres † Buchenwald
1944-12-20 Frans A. Cobbenhaegen † Buchenwald
1945-02-09 Jan Jozef Hendrix † Buchenwald
1945-02-13 Frans Helwegen † Buchenwald
1945-02-18 Gerardus Hermkens † Buchenwald
1945-02-25 Willem Hendrik Marie Jansen † Buchenwald
1945-03-02 Amandus Marie Joseph Alphons de Lauwere † Buchenwald
1945-03-05 Theodorus Joannes Gerardus Pierre Frissen † Buchenwald
1945-03-08 Hubert J. Jamin † Buchenwald
1945-03-12 Petrus M. Verhasselt † Buchenwald
1945-03-14 Petrus P. van Hal † Buchenwald, Weimar
1945-03-28 Peter Windhausen † Buchenwald
1945-04-06 Piet Peters † Buchenwald
1945-04-06 Antonius Gerardus (Antoon) Timmermans † Buchenwald
1945-04-10 Herman Charles Joseph Hoogendijk † Buchenwald
1945-04-23 Sjeng Bisschoff † Buchenwald


Wikimedia

  Dachau

All newly arriving prisoners had to pass through the wrought-iron gate of the Jourhaus with the cynical inscription “Arbeit macht frei” (“Work sets free”). 

On March 22, 1933, a few weeks after Adolf Hitler had been appointed Reich Chancellor, a concentration camp for political prisoners was set up in Dachau. This camp served as a model for all later concentration camps and as a “school of violence” for the SS men under whose command it stood. In the twelve years of its existence over 200.000 persons from all over Europe were imprisoned here and in the numerous subsidary camps. 41.500 were murdered. On April 29 1945, American troops liberated the survivors. [2]
Its organization and spatial structure later served as a model for the construction of new concentration camps. The Nazi regime presented it as a model camp and as a deterrent for political dissenters. Dachau was a training ground for SS guards and SS leaders who were later deployed in the extermination camps, among other places. Dachau was not an extermination camp as such. However, more political prisoners were murdered in Dachau than in any other camp. Of the 206,000 people imprisoned there, at least 41,500 died. There were 1935 non-Jewish Dutch men and 200 non-Jewish Dutch women imprisoned. How many Jewish Dutch spent shorter or longer periods of time in Dachau as a transit camp is not known exactly, due to transports and death marches back to Dachau in March and April 1945. [3]
Today, the site is home to the Dachau Memorial Center, which is visited annually by approximately 800,000 people from around the world. [2]

  1. Open Street Map
  2. Website: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisEspañol
  3. Wikipedia: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês

1942-07-27 Harry Zwaans † Dachau
1942-09-14 Hendricus Leonardus Hubertus Rijnders † Dachau (D)
1942-12-28 Robert Regout † Dachau
1944-03-21 Louis Asselmans † Dachau II
1945-02-03 Gène Hougardy † Dachau
1945-02-08 Joannes Franciscus Hubertus Aloysius Caris † Dachau
1945-02-20 Jan Brinkman † Dachau
1945-02-23 Lambert Vlemmings † Dachau
1945-02-25 Alphonse Sonneville † Dachau
1945-03-29 Ger Fleischeuer † KZ Allach, Dachau
1945-04-21 Hubertus Verhoeven † Dachau
1945-04-29 Leo J.H. Kluitmans † Dachau
1945-05-06 Gerard Tielen † Dachau


Wikimedia

  Bergen-Belsen

Map of the former Bergen-Belsen concentration camp [1.1.] and the cemetery for Soviet prisoners of war [1.2.]. 

The following text is a part of the leaflet [2.2.], a download from the website [2.1].

The Bergen-Belsen Memorial is located around 60 kilometres north-east of Hanover. During World War II, the site was the location of a POW camp operated by the Wehrmacht, the German armed forces. The 20,000 POWs who died there, most of them from the Soviet Union, were buried in a cemetery around one kilometre from the camp.
In 1943, the SS took over parts of the grounds and established a concentration camp. At least 52,000 men, women and children died in this camp, most of them during the last few months of the war. When British troops liberated Bergen-Belsen on 15 April 1945, they found thousands of unburied bodies and completely emaciated prisoners, many of whom were at death’s door.
The victims of the concentration camp were buried in mass graves in the grounds of the former camp. Today, graves, monuments and memorial stones commemorate their suffering and death.
A few foundations are the only structural traces of the camp that still remain.
After the liberation, a displaced persons camp was set up at the nearby former Wehrmacht barracks. Until 1950, up to 12,000 people lived at this, the largest Jewish DP camp in Germany.

  1. Open Street Map
    1. Concentration Camp
    2. Soviet POW cemetery Hörsten
  2. 1. Website: DeutschEnglish
    2. Leaflet: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  3. Wikipedia: NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês

0000-00-00 Emile Antoon Felix Goossens † Bergen-Belsen
0000-00-00 Johannes Meulendijks † Bergen-Belsen
1944-04-05 Jo Giebels † Bergen Belsen
1944-05-07 Joseph Ludovicus Franssen † Bergen-Belsen
1944-12-07 Johan Herman Lubben † Bergen-Belsen
1945-02-23 Willem van Soest † Bergen-Belsen
1945-02-27 Hein Lochtman † Bergen Belsen
1945-03-02 Leonardus Mattheus Verdonschot † Bergen-Belsen
1945-03-09 V.L.Servaas Ramakers † Bergen-Belsen
1945-03-13 Jan Willem Berix † Bergen-Belsen
1945-03-17 Jacques Knops † Bergen-Belsen
1945-03-20 Gerardus van Beckhoven † Bergen-Belsen
1945-03-22 Jan Willem Slangen † Bergen-Belsen
1945-03-31 Frans P.M. van Cann † Bergen-Belsen
1945-03-31 Adrianus Hubertus Josef Merkx † Bergen-Belsen
1945-04-02 J. Leo Moonen † Bergen-Belsen
1945-04-09 Hendrik Jacob Vullinghs † Bergen-Belsen
1945-04-15 Jacobus Johannes Naus † Bergen-Belsen
1945-04-24 Leo Penders † Bergen-Belsen
1945-04-27 Bernhard J. Baars † Bergen-Belsen
1945-05-31 Wiel Creusen † Bergen-Belsen
1945-05-31 Herman Kroezen † Bergen-Belsen?
1945-05-31 Herman L.M. Kroezen † Bergen-Belsen?
1945-05-31 Alphons J.A. van der Mullen † Bergen-Belsen
1945-05-31 Mathijs Rutten † Bergen-Belsen
1945-05-31 Hendrik Sikkes † Bergen-Belsen
1945-05-31 Jozef Mathieu Starren † Bergen-Belsen


1. Wikimedia

 

2. Wikimedia

  AEL (Arbeits-Erziehungs-Lager)

Picture 1: Memorial at the Versetalsperre (dam of the Verse) in Lüdenscheid [2].
The AEL Hunswinkel was situated on the current bottom of the reservoir. The bronze plaque was stolen by metal thieves in 2014 and was later replaced by an acrylic plaque.
The original plaque bore the text:

In the valley of the Verse, the Arbeitserziehungs- und Konzentrationslager Hunswinkel (labor education and concentration camp) was located below this point between 1940 and 1945. Out of many thousands of prisoners from the Soviet Union, Germany, Poland, Belgium, France, Italy, Yugoslavia and the Netherlands, at least 550 were killed by starvation, hard labor, beatings and shootings.
 
June 21, 1997, 52 years after the rule of the National Socialists.

Picture 2: Großbeeren, the memorial to the so-called „Arbeitserziehungslager“
(labor education camp). [2.2.][3]

During the National Socialist era, punishment camps that served primarily and initially to discipline and re-educate dissidents, political opponents, long-term unemployed and foreign forced laborers became the official designation of Arbeitserziehungslager (AEL, labor education camps). These foreign forced laborers were usually housed in open labor camps, where they were generally treated better than concentration camp inmates. However, many evaded "Arbeitsdienst" (labor service) and went into hiding, for example with the help of the Dutch resistance organization "Aussenministerium". Those who were then caught, however, were, according to the official interpretation, slackers who had to be re-educated. Hence the derisive name.
These camps were set up from 1940 by the Secret State Police (Gestapo), often in financial cooperation with companies profiting from Nazi forced labor. By the end of World War II, there were about 200 of them in the German Reich and the occupied territories; 500,000 people passed through these camps, mostly with temporary stays.

  1. Wikipedia: AEL NederlandsDeutschFrançais
  2. Open Street Map
    1. Großbeeren Gedenkstätte für die Opfer des Faschismus
    2. Versetalsperre Gedenktafel Schatten der Vergangenheit
  3. porta-polonica: Großbeeren DeutschEnglishPolsku
  4. geschichtswerkstatt-merseburg.de: AEL Spergau und Zöschen

1943-11-09 Pierre Heynen † AEL Mülheim
1944-01-18 Charles Joseph Nijst † AEL Groß-Beeren, Kreis Teltow
1944-01-28 Jan Loogman † AEL Großbeeren, Kr. Teltow
1944-02-09 Jacob Halbe VeenstraHelgoland
1944-08-18 Johannes Aussems † AEL Zöschen, Kr. Merseburg
1945-02-28 Hubertus Conaert † Straflager Köln, AEL?
1945-03-01 Wilhelmus Hubertus van Mil † AEL Zöschen /Leuna
1945-03-17 Alphonsus Antonius Pieter Hubertus Ceulen † AEL Hunswinkel
1945-03-22 Louis Rietjens † AEL Hunswinkel, Kr. Altena
1945-03-24 Andreas Gerardus Willem Boijmans † AEL Hunswinkel, Kr. Altena
1945-04-09 Wim Kasdorp † AEL Hunswinkel (D)


Wikimedia

  Kamp Amersfoort, Leusden

Photo right: "The Stone Man" (1953), prisoner in front of the firing squad at the Amersfoort camp. Former prisoner Frits Sieger is the creator of this memorial at the execution site. [1]

From August 1941 to April 1945, some 47,000 people were imprisoned here by the Nazis. The German guards, assisted by no less fanatical Dutch collaborators, subjected their prisoners to a regime characterized by hard labor, exhaustion, starvation, and abuse. 650 prisoners did not survive their stay in the camp, 383 of them were murdered in the immediate vicinity. [2]
From August 1941, the camp served the German occupiers as the Amersfoort Police Transit Camp (Polizeiliches Durchgangslager Amersfoort, P.D.A.). Resistance members, about 2,500 Jews, Communists, hostages, (alleged) criminals such as black marketeers, 273 American citizens, about 123 Jehovah’s Witnesses, and 100 Soviet prisoners of war of any gender and sex were imprisoned there. The latter were mainly from Uzbekistan.
After an expansion by seven shacks and a short closure, the camp was reopened in May 1943 as the Expanded Amersfoort Police Prison (Erweitertes Polizeigefängnis Amersfoort). Most of the prisoners had to be transferred to the Vught concentration camp during the reconstruction. The concentration camp acquired an additional function and now played a central role as a collection and transit camp for arrested young men in hiding who had attempted to evade forced labor in Germany by going into hiding. [3]
You will therefore find in the following list both names of people who were murdered in the camp itself or on the Leusderheide, and of people who were imprisoned here for a while and then died elsewhere.

  1. https://www.tracesofwar.nl/sights/221/De-Stenen-Man-Kamp-Amersfoort.htm
  2. www.tracesofwar.nl Nationaal Monument Kamp Amersfoort
  3. Wikipedia: Kamp Amerfoort • NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisEspañol
  4. Kamp Amersfoort & Leusder Heide
    Open Street Map
    https://www.tracesofwar.nl/sights/221/Waar-ligt-De-Stenen-Man-Kamp-Amersfoort.htm

0000-00-00 Harry Holla † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
0000-00-00 Petrus SpanLeusderheide
1941-01-27 Johan van DijkLeusden
1942-01-10 Bernhard Holty /Holtij † Neuengamme
1942-02-06 Guillaume (Giel) MakaLeusden
1942-05-03 Richard Leonard Arnold Schoemaker † Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg)
1942-05-03 Willem Louis Voncken † Sachsenhausen
1942-05-11 Gerard Catharinus van Grootheest † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Willem Christiaan Albert Kroes † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Jacob Lopes de Leaô Laguna † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Bernardus Marcus Miché † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Arnold Michels † Oranienburg
1942-05-15 Peter Johannes Sijbers † Neuengamme
1942-12-05 Bernard Th. Gotjé † Neuengamme
1942-12-13 Victor Quaedvlieg † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1943-01-15 Hendrik Keesman † Neuengamme
1943-02-10 Armand Guillaume Henri MaassenLeusden
1943-02-16 Jules Louis Antoine van Oppen † Vught
1943-02-24 Chris Heuts † Kamp Vught
1943-03-01 Frans Jozef Schaaks † Neuengamme
1943-03-25 Huub Jongen † Bremen
1943-11-22 Franciscus Hubertus Antonius Henderson † kamp Vught
1944-02-09 Jacob Halbe VeenstraHelgoland
1944-04-04 Gerard Frank Smits † Utrecht
1944-06-16 Petrus Ummels † Berlin-Spandau
1944-07-21 Johannes Antonie van EldertLeusden
1944-07-21 Johannes Hendrikus EversLeusderheide
1944-07-21 Ernest George van GeunsLeusden
1944-07-21 Henricus Ignatius LinssenLeusden
1944-07-21 Jozef Marius Rodriguez /RodriguesLeusden
1944-07-21 Christiaan Canisius ToussaintLeusden
1944-07-21 Petrus Laurentius Treytel /TreijtelLeusderheide
1944-07-21 Arp WagterLeusden
1944-08-11 Nicolaas Cornelis van Oosterhout † Kamp Vught
1944-11-01 Frans Coehorst † Zwickau
1944-11-08 Mathieu Marie Joseph Antoine Dumoulin † Fuhlsbüttel Neuengamme
1944-11-25 Leo Moonen † Neuengamme
1944-12-07 Johan Herman Lubben † Bergen-Belsen
1944-12-25 Karel Hendrik Cobben † Neuengamme
1944-12-27 Jacques Joseph Carlos Marie Luske † Hamburg-Neuengamme
1945-01-04 Hendricus Fredericus Jan Hokke † Neuengamme
1945-01-07 Charles Spreksel † KZ Schömberg, KZ Natzweiler
1945-01-11 Dominicus Hylarius /Hilarius Ettema † Neuengamme
1945-01-14 Johan Beyleveld † Neuengamme
1945-01-22 Martin Hubertus Driessen † KZ Neuengamme, Bergedorf
1945-02-06 Wilhelmus Hub. Hoeben † Kdo. Meppen-Versen (Neuengamme
1945-02-06 Eelco Kortrijk † Neuengamme
1945-02-08 Joannes Franciscus Hubertus Aloysius Caris † Dachau
1945-02-13 Johan Anno Heesbeen † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1945-02-20 Peter van Eijk † Neuengamme
1945-02-22 Jan (Johannes Franciscus) van Hout † KZ Neuengamme
1945-03-01 Jan Alphons Dieteren † Neuengamme
1945-03-10 Lambertus C.M. Ravenhorst † Neuengamme
1945-04-24 Peter Will † Transport vanuit Neuengamme
1945-04-27 Paulus Anthonius Engeln † KZ Mauthausen-Ebensee
1945-05-01 Albertus Jacobus Schers † Sandbostel
1945-05-03 Arnold van Geenen † KZ Neustadt, Neuengamme


Wikimedia

 


Book of the Dead Oranjehotel


  Oranjehotel & Waalsdorpervlakte

Het lied der achttien dooden (The song of the eighteen dead) by Jan Campert in the (at tat time still) underground newspaper Vrij Nederland of February 21, 1943. This is the most famous poem about the resistance, written shortly after the first mass execution in the Netherlands on March 13, 1941 on the Waalsdorper­vlakte [1]

The national color of the Netherlands is orange. This has to do with the royal family. Because their ancestors, from William the Silent (William of Orange) and the english king William III of Orange until the French Revolution, were also heads of state of the French principality of Orange. Because of William III the Unionists in Ulster still call themselves Orangists.
During the German occupation, orange became the color of the "little resistance". People demonstratively drank orange lemonade on the terraces and the like. When the Germans began to use the prison in Scheveningen more and more frequently for the detention of resisters, it was soon given the honorary name of Oranjehotel. [2]

On the outside walls of the prison, this anonymous poem has been hung time and again since 1941:
In deze bajes / zit geen gajes / maar Hollands glorie / potverdorie!
In this pen sits no riffraff, but Holland’s glory, damn it.
Most resistance people and hostages who landed there were taken to Germany after some time, for example, the victims of the OD trial in Maastricht.

Nearby in the dunes is the Waalsdorpervlakte [4.2.], a former military training area. It was used by the occupiers for executions. See the list of resistance fighters executed on the Waalsdorpervlakte [3]. It started with the Jewish resister Ernst Cahn [5] and a little later with the above-mentioned 18 dead, all of whom were imprisoned in the Oranjehotel during their trial.
Wikipedia Oranjehotel • NederlandsDeutsch

  1. Wikipedia: Het lied der achttien dooden
  2. Wikipedia: Oranjehotel NederlandsDeutsch
  3. Wikipedia: Waalsdorpervlakte NederlandsDeutschEnglishItaliano
  4. Open Street Map
    1. Oranjehotel Van Alkemadelaan, 2597 BP Scheveningen, Den Haag, NL
    2. Fusillade- en herdenkingsterrein Waalsdorpervlakte
  5. Wikipedia: Ernst Cahn NederlandsDeutsch

1942-05-03 Richard Leonard Arnold Schoemaker † Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg)
1942-05-11 Johan Bakker † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Willem de Boer † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Berend ten Bosch † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Jacob Buikes † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Wilhelmus Fredericus Burger † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Antoine Pierre Marie Fauchey † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Gerard Catharinus van Grootheest † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Tijmen Bastiaan Huurman † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Willem Christiaan Albert Kroes † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Petrus Josephus Maria Kuntz † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Jacob Lopes de Leaô Laguna † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Johan George Alexander van Medenbach de Rooy † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Arnold Michels † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Pieter Johannes Schuijl † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Jaap Sickenga † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Alex Klaas Smidt † Sachsenhausen
1942-05-11 Harmen Smink † Sachsenhausen
1942-05-11 Daniel Johan Smit † Sachsenhausen
1942-05-11 Nicolaas van der Stad † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Ludovicus Franciscus Verstrijden † Oranienburg
1942-05-11 Cornelis van ’t Woudt † Oranienburg
1942-12-13 Victor Quaedvlieg † KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
1943-09-23 Adrianus Reinardu Nas † Wassenaar, Waalsdorpervlakte
1944-01-24 Anna Pijnacker Hordijk † Ravensbruck
1944-08-11 Cornelis Klaas Noordermeer † kamp Vught
1944-08-11 Nicolaas Cornelis van Oosterhout † Kamp Vught
1944-11-08 Mathieu Marie Joseph Antoine Dumoulin † Fuhlsbüttel Neuengamme
1945-01-04 Jozef van Hövell tot Westerflier † Meppen (sub. Neuengamme)
1945-03-12 Cornelis /Cornelius van den Broek † Rotterdam
1947-02-13 Eugène Roomberg † Maastricht

The song of the eighteen dead ( Het lied der achttien dooden )

Men who cry over poetry: Ed van Thijn

Men don’t cry over poetry. Or do they? In the collection Poems that make men cry, more than sixty prominent Dutch and Flemish men tell us which poem brings tears to their eyes. In the coming weeks, HP/De Tijd will feature some of these "crying men." This week: former Dutch PvdA (Labor Party) politician Ed van Thijn (1934) on Jan Campert’s poem Het lied der achttien dooden (The song of the eighteen dead).

“Still every day - the first eight lines hang in my study - this poem pierces my heart. I was six years old when the war began, and ten when I was liberated by the Canadians at Camp Westerbork. In the meantime I had eighteen addresses, three of them in captivity. Christmas 1944, for example, I was sitting in a prison cell with three adult fellow prisoners. Next to our cell was the death cell, from which the despairing sounds sometimes got through to us.”

“I was able to survive the war thanks to a young resistance group that was able to bring 220 children to a total of 1,000 addresses. The resistance group consisted of 14 men and women who risked their lives every day. Four of them did not make it to the liberation. Remco Campert, the son of Jan Campert, later wrote in the poem ’Someone asks the question’:

Resistance begins not with big words
but with small deeds
(…)
someone asks the question
someone resists
and then someone more
and someone more
and more

The question I have asked myself all my life and still ask: How is it possible that I am alive and they are no longer here?”

The song of the eighteen dead
Jan Campert, 1902 1943 Neuengamme
Wikipedia NL DE EN FR)

Een cel is maar twee meter lang
en nauw twee meter breed,
wel kleiner nog is het stuk grond,
dat ik nu nog niet weet,
maar waar ik naamloos rusten zal,
mijn makkers bovendien,
wij waren achttien in getal,
geen zal den avond zien.

O lieflijkheid van licht en land,
van Holland’s vrije kust,
eens door den vijand overmand
had ik geen uur meer rust.
Wat kan een man oprecht en trouw,
nog doen in zulk een tijd?
Hij kust zijn kind, hij kust zijn vrouw
en strijdt den ijdlen strijd.

Ik wist de taak die ik begon,
een taak van moeiten zwaar,
maar ’t hart dat het niet laten kon
schuwt nimmer het gevaar;
het weet hoe eenmaal in dit land
de vrijheid werd geëerd,
voordat een vloekbre schennershand
het anders heeft begeerd.

Voordat die eeden breekt en bralt
het miss’lijk stuk bestond
en Holland’s landen binnenvalt
en brandschat zijnen grond;
voordat die aanspraak maakt op eer
en zulk Germaansch gerief
ons volk dwong onder zijn beheer
en plunderde als een dief.

De Rattenvanger van Berlijn
pijpt nu zijn melodie, —
zoo waar als ik straks dood zal zijn,
de liefste niet meer zie
en niet meer breken zal het brood
en slapen mag met haar —
verwerp al wat hij biedt of bood
die sluwe vogelaar.

Gedenkt die deze woorden leest
mijn makkers in den nood
en die hen nastaan ’t allermeest
in hunnen rampspoed groot,
gelijk ook wij hebben gedacht
aan eigen land en volk —
er daagt een dag na elken nacht,
voorbij trekt iedre wolk.

Ik zie hoe ’t eerste morgenlicht
door ’t hooge venster draalt.
Mijn God, maak mij het sterven licht —
en zoo ik heb gefaald
gelijk een elk wel falen kan,
schenk mij dan Uw genâ,
opdat ik heenga als een man
als ’k voor de loopen sta.