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1940-1945, the resistance in the dutch province of Limburg

  • Resistance in Limburg

    The fallen resistance fighters in the dutch province of Limburg

    In the memorial chapel of the provincial resistance monument on the Cauberg in Valkenburg, on three walls are the names of fallen resistance fighters from Dutch Limburg. They are all names with a story, which of course cannot be told there due to lack of space. So that happens here. Anyone who can contribute is expressly requested to get in touch. See the contact page.
    Those resistance people, in this case almost only men (Why, in fact? See couriers, the group of resistance fighters, which increasingly consisted of women.), are mostly unforgotten, especially in the places where they lived. We find their stories on local websites, in some cases also on Wikipedia.
    A great help for those who search for Dutch war victims are specially the websites of the Oorlogsgravenstichting (war graves foundation) and www.tracesofwar.com.
    Much of the background information comes from the unsurpassed book by Fred Cammaert: Het Verborgen Front, Geschiedenis van de georganiseerde illegaliteit in de provincie Limburg tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.
    The complete book can be found on the website of the University of Groningen. (Only a summary is available in english.)

    Memorable events in Limburg

    | Vervolgd in Limburg (Prosecuted in Limburg) | The “Hannibalspiel” | Englandspiel | the miners’ strike | The Raid of Weert | The Strike of Wittem | The Raid on the Distribution Office in Valkenburg | The raid on the Maastricht prison on september 5th, 1944 | Between Maas and Peel | A military training camp for people in hiding | The Tears of Roermond | Revenge actions during the liberation


    Vervolgd in Limburg (Prosecuted in Limburg)
    That is the title of the dissertation by the historian Herman van Rens.
    He states on p. 371 that two factors played an important role in saving an above-average number of Jews:

    1. A tightly cooperating group in which people knew each other very well, preferably from before the war, and
    2. the presence of inspiring people who took the lead.

    In summary: “A small group of moral leaders in Limburg showed the way of practical charity. Their positive example made it easy to follow them.”
    He notes, that point 2 played a decisive role in the numbers of saved Jews.

    The murder of the Sinti (Porajmos), who were present in Limburg before and during the war, went quite differently. They did not live in the midst of society like the Jews, which made it easier for the Nazis. The snare, even for the people themselves, was put on almost silently. First the so-called “work-shy elements“ were forbidden to travel, then they were obliged to go to central assembly camps, where they were to be “re-educated”. Many settled Limburgers may have thought at the time, “Well, it was about time!”. But most did not even notice. The Sinti at that time still lived almost all in caravans. These were confiscated. Thus, a large part of them disappeared from view. On 16 May 1944 a large-scale raid was carried out throughout the Netherlands, during which 578 people were arrested and taken to camp Westerbork. Finally, 244 of them were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau on May 19, 1944. Only 31 of them survived the war.
    More in the Advies Gemeentelijk woonwagen-en standplaatsenbeleid of the “Vereniging Behoud Woonwagencultuur in Nederland” (association for the preservation of the caravan culture in the Netherlands). It discusses the persecution of the Sinti and the other Roma, but also of other people who led a “gypsy-like” life according to the National Socialists.
    See also what Roger Moreno Rathgeb said, the composer of the Requiem for Auschwitz, about “The Forgotten Holocaust” before he lit a candle during the memorial service “Valkenburg liberated 75 years ago”.

    The “Hannibalspiel”
    An important part of the resistance work, especially in the border province of Limburg, was already early in the war to set up escape lines for prisoners of war who fled from Germany, later also for fleeing Jews, shot down Allied aircrew (usually called pilots) and Dutchmen on their way to England. From Germany and the Netherlands one of these lines ran via Eijsden (NL) to Voeren (B) and Visé. From the Land of Herve and Liège, the refugees were taken to Givet on the French border or to Brussels, where other resistance groups took them over. The first were the French and Belgians who fled from captivity. This started as early as 1940. They often knocked on churches’ doors for help. In the course of 1941 a resistance group arose in the border town of Eijsden from the local brass band Sainte Cécile: the fruit grower Alphons Smeets with his entire family, the couple De Liedekerke, customs officer D. Sleeuwenhoek (who could freely cross the border and knew when patrols were running) and the brass band conductor Arthur Renkin from Liège. (Cammaert 75-94, 135, 239-240). Through Renkin, they established cross-border contacts with resistance fighters in the province of Liège from the organizations Luc /Marc and Clarence such as the doctor Jules Goffin from ’s-Gravenvoeren, Christiane Derenne-Lamazière, the monks father Hugues (Karel Jacobs) and father Étienne (Piet Muhren) from Val-Dieu Abbey and others. Also in the province of Liège, besides former soldiers, parish clergymen were often active. An important contact point was also the gendarmerie in St.-Martensvoeren where Theodoor Brentjens, born in Kessenich on January 12th, 1894, was commander. He then made sure that the former prisoners of war ended up in the Monnikenhof farm that belonged to Val-Dieu Abbey.
    Clarence was primarily an intelligence service. For example, they collected information about the railway traffic around the important junction of Visé. An important security principle especially of Clarence was, that per person only one activity should be developed: either intelligence, or the smuggling of those wanted by the Germans, or helping people to hide. In the case of the group Erkens this was not so strictly adhered to, which would promote their later downfall. Nic Erkens came into contact with this group through Pierre Dresen.
    They were infiltrated by the office Groningen of the German Marineabwehr (counterintelligence service of the German Navy), who set up the deadly “Hannibalspiel” for this purpose. No less than four infiltrators were deployed, who succeeded in penetrating deeper and deeper into the network due to the naivety of Erkens and especially Renkin. After their arrest Erkens in particular had to take the rap.
    On the Dutch side this meant the end of the Erkens group and in Belgium a major blow to the "Luc /Marc" and "Clarence" organizations. In total, the Germans arrested 86 persons from these groups between June 8, 1942 and March 19, 1943. 30 persons were released after a short imprisonment; 18 persons were released after trial; 22 persons were deported to German camps of whom eleven did not survive the war. Eleven persons were sentenced to death and shot on 9 October 1943 in Fort Rhijnauwen (Bunnik, near Utrecht). The fate of five detainees could not be determined (J. van Lieshout, "Het Hannibalspiel", Bussum 1980, pp. 319-324).The Hannibal game of the Marineabwehr (counterintelligence service of the German Navy) in Groningen set an end to the activities of the Erkens group. Those who were sentenced to death were executed at Fort Rhijnauwen (Bunnik, near Utrecht, Netherlands) on october 9th, 1943. (J. van Lieshout, “Het Hannibalspiel”, Bussum 1980, pag. 319-324).
    See: Jan van Lieshout, Het Hannibalspiel: Het sinistere spel tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog van de contraspionagedienst der Kriegsmarine, dat leidde tot de ondergang van een Nederlands-Belgische verzetsdrieëenheid, ISBN 10: 9026945744 ISBN 13: 9789026945748
    In his book Grenzeloos verzet. Over spionerende monniken, ontsnappingslijnen en het Hannibalspel (Boundless resistance. About spying monks, escape lines and the Hannibal game) Paul de Jongh describes in detail the escape line from the Netherlands to Belgium.
    More information also from Cammaert, chapter II, p. 79 ff.

    Englandspiel
    The Englandspiel or England game, by which dropped agents were intercepted by German intelligence, was much bigger than the Hannibal game. In Limburg, the Bongaerts network fell victim to it.
    For detailed information: Fred Cammaert, Chapter IV §III. De groep-Bongaerts verstrikt in het Englandspiel: de affaire Vastenhout
    See also Wikipedia NL

    The miners’ strikeDuring the war the mines were still in full operation and they were of great importance for the supply of electricity, but also for the railroads and thus for the Germans. As a result, many young men, who did not want to go to Germany to work, could stay here legally. But there were also many people in hiding working in the mines, with false papers, because they were not watched so closely.
    The miners’ strike was part of the strikes of April-May 1943. They were the transition to a more massive resistance movement throughout the Netherlands, including the province of Limburg. The strikes were brutally suppressed, but that is precisely why resistance organizations grew in number. For more on this topic see our story about Valkenburg. Click on the < back button under the flags left, to get back here again.

    The Raid of Weert The Raid of Weert, a.k.a. the Betrayal of Weert took place on June 21, 1944. The district leaders of the LO Limburg had convened a meeting in the Sint Louis boarding school in Weert, in order to find an answer to the new Second Distribution Card (T.D.) and the Z-cards. For this meeting they had invited the very competent document forger Bob Jesse (pseudonym: Vos), not knowing that he had been busted in the meantime. When his interrogator Wehner threatened to break the arms and legs of two Jewish toddlers, a boy and a girl of about four years old, in the presence of their mother, and even attempted to do so, he broke down and led the SiPo to the meeting. In total, eight men were arrested by the SiPo:

    • Brother Valentinus Merkx - Teacher and superior of St. Louis, who had nothing to do with anything, by the way. † march 1945 in Bergen-Belsen.
    • Jan Hendrikx (Venlo, province leader) † vermoedelijk begin 1945 tijdens een evacuatietransport van Sachsenhausen naar Bergen-Belsen
    • Guus Hermans (Weert) † september 2, 1944, Oranienburg/Sachsenhausen
    • Giel Berix (Heerlen) † march 13, 1945, Bergen-Belsen
    • Jac Naus (Venlo) † april 15, 1945, Bergen-Belsen
    • Jacques Knops (Gulpen) † march 17, 1945, Bergen-Belsen
    • W.H.M. Jansen (Vierlingsbeek) † february 25, 1945 Buchenwald.
    • Sef (J.F.H.) Mulders (Maastricht). He survived the war, but was succeeded by J. Sorée because Sef was in the concentration camp.

    Tom (Th.C.) van Helvoort (Roermond) Joe (F.J.K.) Russel (Venray) Jan (J.A.) Dijker (Nijmegen *) and Kees van Sambeek (Maas en Waal *) could escape.

    *) The districts of Vierlingsbeek, Nijmegen and Maas en Waal, although outside the province of Limburg, were part of the LO province of Limburg. More info on these districts

    During the month of July and the first half of August the detainees in Vught were interrogated continuously by Nitsch who was authorized to conduct so-called sharpened interrogations. After two weeks he received assistance from C. Schut, who revealed himself to be a devilish sadist without inhibitions, which even went too far for Nitsch. Repeatedly he had to restrain his helper. Especially Knops and the chaplains Naus and Berix were badly injured by the two. By bluffing and playing off the arrested persons against each other, by which he cleverly used previously acquired knowledge and contradictory statements, Nitsch found out a lot. Soon new arrests followed in Roermond, Helden and Wittem. (Cammaert VIb, page 567) (Cammaert VIb, pagina 567)
    Read more in Fred Cammaert – Het verborgen front (The Hidden Front) Chapter 6a, §VI, pp.  560 ff.: De overval van Weert

    The Strike of Wittem Pater B.J Baars, de rayonleider LO-Wittem, was in het lazaret van het klooster slachtoffer van infiltratie door een Duitse onderofficier, een zekere Lambertz uit Aken, die aangaf te willen deserteren omdat hij zo’n goede Christen was en dat aanvankelijk misschien ook meende. Na deze infiltratie volgde op 21 juli 1944 een arrestatiegolf, die spoedig de „Klap van Wittem“ genoemd zou worden.
    Cammaert noemt de volgende gearresteerden: P.Horbach, H.J.D. Hamers, J.M.W. Bisschoff, Pater Baars, J.H. van Houtem, Ortmans, de broers E.A.H.M. en J.M.H. Merckelbach, de onderduiker G. Pirovano, de kapelaans P.H.H. Houben en L.M.H. Penders en twee onschuldige inwoners van Vaals. De kapelaans Wermeling en Franck en A. Noppeney ontsnapten. J. Merckelbach en de twee inwoners van Vaals kwamen na enkele dagen vrij. De overigen werden op 1 augustus van Maastricht naar Vught overgebracht en vijf dagen later naar Sachsenhausen, vanwaar ze over verscheidene kampen werden verspreid. Slechts drie van de tien arrestanten overleefden de kampen. De anderen kwamen in Duitsland om het leven: H.J.D. Hamers (Oranienburg, 29-12-1944), J.M.W. Bisschoff (Buchenwald, 23-4-1945). B.J. Baars$comMentc (Bergen-Belsen, 27-4-1945), J.H. van Houtem (Lübeck, 28-5-1945), L.M.H. Penders (Bergen-Belsen, 24-4-1945), P.H.H. Houben (Ludwigslust, 19-5-1945) en E.A.H.M. Merckelbach (Neuengamme, 15-1-1945).(Meer bij Cammaert VIb, pp. 697-699)
    A detailed description on the occasion of the unveiling of a commemorative plaque on July 21, 2015 near the Arnold Janssen Monastery between Wahlwiller and Mechelen.

    The Raid on the Distribution Office in Valkenburg By the growing number of divers, their needs could be met only if they also possessed a sufficient amount of ration cards and coupons. Mostly local government officials ensured this, like in Valkenburg. In June 1944, the relative self-sufficiency threatened to come to an abrupt end by the introduction of a new insert sheet. They feared a review at any moment and that they would not manage to correct the deficits in time, which would inevitably lead to their severe punishment. First, the local resistance group tried to have printed new counterfeit cards in Amsterdam, but a German raid in that print shop prevented this solution. Then they decided to attack the distribution office and to establish such a chaos that it would be impossible to control any cards. The K.P. (knokploeg = fighting team) from Heerlen, who would do the job, did not know that a consignment of allocation documents for two months had arrived the day before. The haul was colossal: over 210,000 Bonkaarten (ration cards), about 82,000 ration stamps, over 2500 ration cards, 5000 T.D. master cards, 1600 toeslagkaarten (supplement cards), numerous insert sheets and a typewriter. More than a dozen of jute bags were needed to transport everything. The bags were brought to a farm near Kunrade in Voerendaal.
    The complete story on this raid on this site

    The raid on the Maastricht prison on september 5th, 1944 – The liberation of 80 prisoners.
    Repeatedly, plans were made for a raid on the Maastricht prison, which was under Dutch management. The primary concern was not the living conditions, which continued to deteriorate throughout 1943. However, in helping to improve these living conditions, very useful contacts were made that could be used for the liberation of prisoners. Both the quality and quantity of food decreased, and the cells became more and more overcrowded. Especially in the attics, it was unbearably hot in the summer. The L.O. and its combat groups (KP) did everything in their power to do something about the food shortage. On the night of June 15, 1944, the combat group of Heerlen stole 1,000 kilos of butter from the Limburgia dairy in Reymerstok. A part of it was destined for the prison in Maastricht. To smuggle in food and the like, the assistance of the staff was required. Already at the beginning of the war, in 1941, the Maastricht underground movement was assisted by several prison officials, including the clerk M.J.H. Rademakers and the prison medic Hubert Jamin. Messages and even complete interrogation protocols were smuggled out by them. Threatened arrests could thus be avoided. In 1944, this developed into a nationwide intricated intelligence service.
    Plans for a liberation action began in late 1943, when a number of resisters from all parts of the province were arrested through infiltration by H. Vastenhout and others. However, one day before the action, those arrested were transferred to Amersfoort.
    In early 1944, new plans were made as a result of waves of arrests in Venlo and Maastricht. After a failed attempt caused by insufficient coordination (fortunately, because it was a trap), things went wrong again on April 8, 1944, as the prisoners had already been transferred to Amersfoort the day before. Among them was Frans Coehorst, district courier and secretary to “Ambrosius”, who thus knew a lot about the resistance.
    They did not let these setbacks get them down. In June 1944, the first attempt was made to free the prisoners with the help of guards and the prison manager. This failed because the manager Dilling did not dare. On Monday evening, September 4, the head of the unified battle groups of South Limburg, P.F. Driessen, and police inspector M. Krol went to Dilling to demand the release of all political prisoners still present. Dilling said that the most important political prisoners had been taken away in the meantime, but that he would come to the prison at 5 o’clock the next morning. The South Limburg KP and some Maastricht LO members would also be present.
    Since it was Dolle Dinsdag (Mad Tuesday), there was no resistance from the Nazis present. A group of about twelve people freed eighty prisoners. About half of them were acquainted with the city and sought their own way. About ten people were taken to a private house. Unforeseen problems arose with the remaining thirty. They were housed in a school building where homeless people were also staying. These were afraid of discovery and reprisals from the German side and demanded the withdrawal of the liberated prisoners. They then ended up in a patronage building in the neighborhood, from where they were distributed among several hiding places. (Source: Cammaert 6a, page 530 ff.)

    Between Maas and Peel



    Between Maas and Peel

    During the occupation, the villages on the west bank of the Meuse, such as Sevenum and Horst, were, from the point of view of the LO in Venlo, “outlets” par excellence for people who had to hide themselves, the so called “divers”. They were small, closed agricultural communities. Also larger villages like Venray and Horst were much smaller than today.
    Open Street Map

    On Sunday, October 8, 1944, so-called church raids took place throughout northern Limburg and parts of northern Brabant. 2805 men between the ages of 16 and 65 were arrested. The majority were put to work at the Hermann Göring-Werke. Most of them survived the war. This is not the case for 121 of those arrested.
    Read more about the background of that slave hunt at www.4en5mei.nl: Sevenum, sporen die bleven

    Tekst op het monument aan de Peelstraat, Kronenberg (Horst aan de Maas):
    In memory of the men and boys from Kronenberg, who were kidnapped by the Germans during the Church raid of October 8, 1944 and died in Germany. The reburial of some of them took place on September 4th, 1951. Martin Aerts, Jozef Baeten, Piet Billekens, Lodewijk Franssen, Hendrik Hoeijmakers, Piet Philipsen, Jan Philipsen, Peter Roodbeen, Jan Verstappen

    Broekhuizen en Broekhuizenvorst Grubbenvorst, Haelen, Heel-Panheel, Helden, Heythuysen, Horst, Kessel, Maasbree, Nederweert, Roggel, Sevenum, Wessem

    A military training camp for people in hiding
    When in 1943 the great majority of the students did not want to sign the declaration of loyalty and when also because of this more and more young men wanted to go into hiding in the area between the Meuse and the Peel, some former soldiers from the OD in Venlo came up with the idea of training them to get soldiers. They had in mind a sort of partisan commando that would be able to hide well in this wooded area. The choice for one of these camps was the forest Bovensbos near Helden, see Open Street Map near the farm of Cornelis Krans.
    From Cammaert’s dissertation, Chapter VIII De Ordedienst, p. 883: The Diver’s Camps in Helden and Sevenum you can read a short summary here.

    Cornelis Krans provided five demountable chicken coops that had room for 40 to 50 recruits. The camp was given the name "Vrij Nederland." Because of the large number of people in the know, some of whom seemed to regard the camp rather as a sort of summer camp, rumors soon began to make the rounds. N.S.B. man H. Kessels also heard them and biked there on Thursday, July 15, 1943. Some farm workers showed him the way because he said he also wanted to go into hiding. He found what he was looking for and talked about it with his party comrades Kluytmans and Maessen. A day later he filed a complaint with the police. Constable Evers, a friend of the Resistance, promised to take care of it the next day and immediately sounded the alarm. It was decided to liquidate Kessels as soon as possible. This happened immediately: on the night of Friday, July 16, to Saturday, July 17, he was shot and his body was left there for unknown reasons. This made everything even worse. The SiPo (SicherheitsPolizei, security police) from Maastricht, led by Max Strobel/Ströbel, started an investigation and learned from Kluytmans about Kessel’s discovery.The chief of police in Helden-Panningen Alphons van der Mullen, informed the resistance that a large-scale raid was imminent. While waiting for reinforcements from the Ordnungspolizei, the SiPo people arrested the Krans couple and several other people, including the Jewish De Jong family of Nijmegen, who were in an underground hiding place near the farm. They and Cornelis Krans did not survive the war.
    Just over the Belgian border, a similar initiative emerged. Also there started by soldiers: Secret Army Zone II/Limburg. That didn’t go well either, as you can read there. In this densely populated part of Europe, resistance in small, relatively independently operating groups was much more effective and secure.

    The Tears of Roermond
    After the liberation of South Limburg and the failed Battle of Arnhem, the Maas River in Central and North Limburg remained the front line for the time being. In Roermond, when it had been front city for over a month - arrived in the night of 25 to 26 November the depleted 1st battalion of the parachute regiment Kampfgruppe Hübner. The commander Ulrich Matthaeas became city commander (Ortskommandant) and because the west side of the Maas was liberated territory, he also became front section commander (Frontabschnitts­kommandant). A grim atmosphere immediately developed in the city. He and one of his subordinates, F.W. Held, practiced true terror there in December. The Major had had a panic fear of partisans since his stay in Russia. When the Allies would cross the Meuse River, he feared being attacked from behind. Therefore, he sought an opportunity to get rid of the entire male population of “recruitable” age. That opportunity presented itself around Christmas 1944. By betrayal a hiding place of eleven Roermonders came to light, who were hiding under the floor of a classroom at the Schoolpath. One young man, Jacobus Sevenich, managed to escape.
    The remaining ten and two other detainees had to appear before a hastily assembled drumhead court-martial. The verdict was decided in advance: death by bullet.Because it was not about their withdrawal from the labor service or other so-called offenses such as listening to the BBC. It was about terror as a means to get the men and boys out of Roermond and furthermore to make them slaves. On December 26 and 27, 1944, the 14 were shot in the Elmpterbos just across the German border near Roermond: Louis Claessens, Frans Denis, Josef Fuchs, Johannes Hanno, Lambertus Janssens, Willem Jongen, Thijs Oljans, Wicher Oljans, Hubertus Selder, Mathieu Sevenich, Jan Tobben, Louis Uphus (later reburied on the National Field of Honor in Loenen), Willem Winters and ‘Frans’, an escaped Polish prisoner of war.
    Cammaert writes in chapter 6b, on pages 621-622: “The twelve innocents were sentenced to death for ‘illegal activities’. That same day Matthaeas had them shot in the woods between Roermond and the German border village of Elmpt. The next day he had two more people, including a Pole, executed there. After the proclamation of the verdict and the order that all male inhabitants of Roermond and Maasniel aged between 16 and 60 had to register with the Ortskommandantur before December 30, 4:00 p.m. under penalty of death, a wave of horror swept through the city. As a result, about 2800 Roermonders showed up. On December 30 they were forced to march in the freezing cold to Dülken, where they had to spend the night standing in the cycling arena in the open air. The next day they were taken by train to Wuppertal for forced labor in the German war industry.

    On the old cemetery near the Kapel in ’t Zand, popularly called the Aje Kirkhaof, a memorial stone permanently commemorates this dark event known as ‘het verdriet van Roermond’, the tears of Roermond.
    Just across the border, near the site of the executions, citizens from Niederkrüchten erected the memorial stone pictured above (Mahnmal Lüsekamp).

    Revenge actions during the liberation The intention of this website is to keep alive the memory on the history of the occupation in Limburg and especially in Valkenburg. Honor to whom honor is due, but not in the form of unreflective hero worship. For example, there were resistance fighters with anti-Semitic resentment, although they also helped Jews. But another story is that after the liberation, suddenly people who pretended to be in the resistance appeared everywhere and started to carry out disgusting acts of revenge "in the name of the resistance." How was this possible?
    The first Dutch city to be liberated was Maastricht. There was an organization of Dutch soldiers who had been demobilized by the Germans and called themselves Ordedienst. Their goal was to fill the power vacuum when the German troops would disappear and the Allies had not yet arrived. Their common motive was fear of a communist seizure of power. There were OD groups that also resisted during the occupation, such as the very active group around fire department commander Charles Bongaerts in Heerlen. But there were also those who explicitly did NOT want to resist and focused only on the days of liberation. Therefore, the OD as a whole cannot be considered as resistance.


Het verborgen front (The Hidden Front) History of the organised resistance against nazi occupation in the Dutch province Limburg during World War II. Plus excerpt in English. Since its publication, this doctoral thesis has been THE standard work when it is about the Limburg Resistance. Also on this site a lot of information is taken from it.

  • Resistance in Valkenburg

    Resistance in Valkenburg The whole story, through the eyes of contemporary witnesses..
    Sources etc.

  • External links

    Links List Resistance WW2

    Roermond Front City Pagina is in het Nederlands
    Series of stories by Eric Munnicks about the last months of the war.
    See also the other War Stories of the Roermond Municipal Archives. Unfortunately no translation available. 76

    Limburg 75 jaar vrij Pagina is in het Nederlands
    75

    Belgium WWII Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page disponible en Français;
    A virtual platform on Belgium and its inhabitants during the Second World War74

    Former concentration camp Natzweiler-Struthof, Alsace Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
    European Centre of Deported Resistance Members. Camp and museum73

    The Jewish Victims of National Socialism in Cologne | A–Z Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar
    72

    Documentation Center on the National-Socialism in Cologne Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
    Virtual visit of the museum and the memorial in 8 languages, amongst them Hebrew and Spanish71

    Camp Vught National Memorial Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
    The Camp Vught National Memorial (Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught) is located on a part of the former SS camp Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, also known as Camp Vught (January 1943 – September 1944).70

    The Margraten Boys - About the US War Cemetery Page available in English
    Harrowing and redeeming, this is the history of a unique ‘adoption’ system. For generations, local families, grateful for the sacrifice of their liberators from Nazi occupation, have cared for not only the graves, but the memories, of over 10,000 US soldiers in the cemetery of Margraten in the Netherlands.
    Free e-book by Peter Schrijvers. More e-books on WWII, in English and Dutch, by this author: https://www.google.de/search?hl=de&tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=inauthor:%22Peter+Schrijvers%2268

    The Jewish Monument Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
    Every victim of the Holocaust who was murdered is memorialised on the Joods Monument with a personal profile. The Jewish Monument is not only suitable for searching and commemorating. You can supplement the monument with photos, documents and stories, by making family connections and adding members of families. To place a call and get in touch with other users. You can also add information about stumbling stones and important other external links.67

    When the miners go on strike against the German occupiers Pagina is in het Nederlands
    The mine strike in Limburg started on April 29th, 1943. The workload was rising and rising. The first Dutch men were forced to work in Germany. The immediate reason was General Christiansen’s order to arrest all released prisoners of war from the Dutch army again and to transport them to Germany. The strike is broken up by means of executions.66

    Persecuted in Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
    Jews and Sinti in Dutch Limburg during the Second World War
    ISBN 978-90-8704-353-7
    Dissertation by Herman van Rens on 03/22/2013, University of Amsterdam, slightly edited
    © 2013 Hilversum65

    Ons verblijf in het dorp Mergel (dagboek) (Meerssen 1989) Pagina is in het Nederlands
    Our stay in the village of Mergel (diary, Meerssen 1989
    Joop Geijsen from Meerssen tells how he and two other boys went into hiding for a year in the limestone caves just outside Meerssen, which was later called the diver’s inn.
    As far as we know, sold out and only available in Dutch libraries.64

    Yad Vashem Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
    The World Holocaust Remembrance Center63

    Beelden van verzet Pagina is in het Nederlands
    This book shows, how every Dutch generation deals differently with the past of resistance.
    If you can read Dutch, you can find the download link for this essay by Sander Bastiaan Kromhout
    Published by the Nationaal Comité 4 en 5 May, 2018
    Print edition ISBN 9077294244.62

    Regional Historic Center Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
    Limburg has numerous specialized archive institutions that preserve relevant historical sources concerning World War II. However, it is not always clear to the public for which information they can go where. Archives have overlapping work areas, organizations and people have been active in the past in different areas and in different fields. So it often takes a long time to find the right place to find information.
    Here you can search, but also share your documents with other interested parties. This can be done by donating them to existing archives or museums, or by making digital copies of the available documents or images.61

    War deads in Nijmegen 1940 - 1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
    With search function60

    Foundation Dutch Resistance Monument Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
    Names of resistance fighters in the Netherlands and colonies during the Second World War59

    La résistance durant la guerre 1940-1945 Page disponible en Français;
    It is mainly about the network “Clarence” whose founder was Walther Dewez; evoked are also the names of various agents of Visé and the Fourons that were part of this movement.58

    Fallen resistance people Maastricht Pagina is in het Nederlands
    A brief description and a long gallery of portraits57

    Stichting Herinnering LO-LKP Pagina is in het Nederlands
    The foundation remembrance of LO-LKP wants to raise awareness of the history of the resistance by the organisations LO and LKP. To this end, she makes the contents of his memorial book and many original documents available to the interested reader in digital form.56

    The Forgotten Genocide – The Fate of the Sinti and Roma Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English
    Also known as Gipsies.55

    1944-2019 ⇒ South Limburg 75 years free! ⇐ Pagina is in het Nederlands
    An overview of the activities in South Limburg around this memorable anniversary in september. It is celebrated in every municipality.54

    Short historic American film about the Divers Inn Pagina is in het Nederlands
    A silent film, shot by a USAmerican team after the liberation of Valkenburg. The first part has been re-enacted, with the help of the Valkenburg resistance. It shows how people going into hiding (divers) were taken to the divers inn. The man in the hat is always Pierre Schunck. The film starts at his home in Plenkertstraat, Valkenburg. The role of the policeman on the bike at the start is not entirely clear. According to the accompanying text, this is a courier.53

    Database persoonsbewijzen uit de Tweede Wereldoorlog Pagina is in het Nederlands
    About Dutch identity cards in the Second World War as well as images of identity cards in combination with other documents and genealogical and personal data including life stories.49

    Memorial stone for the resistance people Coenen and Francotte Pagina is in het Nederlands
    In front of the Provincial Resistance Monument in Valkenburg. Here the underground fighters Sjeng (John) Coenen and Joep (Joe) Francotte were murdered on 5 September 1944, just before the liberation of Valkenburg48

    Resistance Memorial of the dutch province of Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
    Every year on May 4, the commemoration ceremony for the fallen of this province takes place here. Meanwhile, also the veterans are no longer among us anymore.47

    Call to everyone, but especially to the residents of Valkenburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
    On September 17, 2019 it will be 75 years ago that the town and all villages of the current municipality of Valkenburg aan de Geul were liberated.
    To commemorate the liberation and to display the wartime as accurately as possible, the Museum Land van Valkenburg is looking for personal stories, eye witnesses and tangible memories.
    Of all these lifelike stories, materials, photos, footage and equipment, we are organizing a unique and as complete as possible overview exhibition under the name “We Do Remember”46

    Roll of honor of the fallen, 1940 - 1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
    A website commissioned by the dutch Second Chamber (~ House of Representatives). The Honor Roll of Fallen 1940-1945 includes those who fell as a result of resistance or as a soldier.45

    Grenzeloos verzet Pagina is in het Nederlands
    Borderless resistance – On Spying Monks, escape lines and the “Hannibal Game”, 1940-1943
    ISBN 9789056220723
    Unique case study on the resistance in World War II on both sides of the Belgian-Dutch border. Focus is on the Belgian side. Extends the book by Cammaert, especially where it concerns the group Erkens in Maastricht.44

    The hidden front Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
    History of the organized resistance in the Dutch province of Limburg during World War II
    PhD thesis 1994, by CAMMAERT, Alfred Paul Marie.
    The complete book in Dutch, with English summary, on the website of the University of Groningen.
    Core literature!43

    Forgotten History – Pierre Schunck, Resistance Fighter Page available in English
    42

    Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog Pagina is in het Nederlands
    The Kingdom of the Netherlands in World War II (Downlod PDF)41

    World War II in South Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
    Very many pictures ordered by municipality. For Valkenburg: many pictures from the Nazi boarding school for boys Reichsschule der SS (former Jesuit convent) and from the days of liberation, by Frans Hoffman.40

    Sources Network on World War II (NOB) Pagina is in het Nederlands
    Search in 9 million documents, movies and pictures about and from World War II in the Netherlands.39

    Institute for Studies on War, Holocaust and Genocide Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
    Institute for Studies on War, Holocaust and Genocide
    Issues related to war violence generate a lot of interest from society and demand independent academic research. NIOD conducts and stimulates such research and its collections are open to all those who are interested.38

    Limburg gaf joden WOII meeste kans Pagina is in het Nederlands
    Dutch Jews had the best chance of going into hiding and surviving the Holocaust in the province of Limburg. This is apparent from the dissertation on the persecution of Jews and Sinti in Limburg during the Second World War by the historian from Beek, Herman van Rens at the University of Amsterdam.
    More info in Dutch36

    Tweede Wereldoorlog en bijzondere rechtspleging Pagina is in het Nederlands
    About the trials of Dutchmen who collaborated with the occupiers: The so-called special administration of justice. This page shows you the way. Here you will find photos, the most used keywords, references to interesting archives, indexes, websites, personal stories and guides for research.35

    Nederlands Auschwitz Comité Pagina is in het Nederlands
    34

    Secret Army Zone II/Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
    About the failed attempt to set up a complete guerrilla army in Belgian Limburg. Use the built-in translator20

    resistance in Enschede Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
    19

    30th Infantry Division Old Hickory Page available in English
    Liberators of South-Limburg17

    Bond van Oud-Stoottroepers en Stoottroepers Pagina is in het Nederlands
    16

    The Dutch Underground and the Stoottroepers Page available in English
    Stoottroepen (Stormtroopers) consisted of the ancient resistant fighters who entered in the Dutch army after the liberation of Limburg, to participate in the war against the fascism.15

     

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