text, no JavaScript Log in  Deze pagina in het NederlandsDiese Seite auf DeutschThis page in English - ssssCette page en FrançaisEsta página em Portuguêstopback

Limburg 1940-1945,
Main Menu

  1. People
  2. Events/ Backgrounds
  3. Resistance groups
  4. Cities & Towns
  5. Concentration Camps
  6. Valkenburg 1940-1945
  7. Lessons from the resistance

1940-1945. The resistance in the dutch province of Limburg



In order to control different groups in society, the occupiers had different methods. Students had to sign a declaration of loyalty. Those who did not do so were no longer allowed to study, and if that student was male, he had to go to Germany for forced labor. [1]
For anyone who was culturally engaged in some form for his profession, the Kultuurkamer was established following the German example. [2]
Membership was compulsory, but of course only open to those with an Ariernachweis or Aryan certificate. [3]
Those who were not members were no longer allowed to create culture. It was not just about artists:
To give an idea of the breadth of the Kultuurkamer spectrum, we mention a few: auctioneers, appraisers, art critics, medallists, etchers, lithographers, framers, glassblowers, stained-glass manufacturers, tile manufacturers, heraldists, bookbinders, metalworkers, batikers, embroiderers, goblin makers, lace-makers, basket makers, reed weavers, folk dancers, amateur dramatists, ballet dancers, horse dancers, revue dancers, costumiers, stage dressers, conferencers and carillonists. [4, p.72]
Unlike students, who studied together at mostly large institutions of learning, most artists and members of the other above professions worked alone and were thus easier to intimidate. Moreover, they often had a thriving business to lose. As a result:
A minority of artists remained outside the Kultuurkamer and only a minority of this minority protested publicly or went into organized resistance. [4, p.74]
This did not mean that the others accepted National Socialism. The Kultuurkamer was completely sabotaged and never really got off the ground and the complete Nazification of the Dutch art world was far from complete. Artists who refused regularly succeeded in presenting themselves in public. Sometimes artists managed to offer non-material resistance by praising Jewish colleagues in radio interviews. Unregistered architects continued to build unhindered, just as it happened that art galleries exhibited works by unregistered painters. [4, p.79]
The artists who did not become members of the Kultuurkamer were either Jews, who were rejected, or they had chosen to do so themselves. Mostly for principle reasons.
A monument in the northern Limburg town of Mook commemorates the resistance of artists during World War II. [5]

  1. Loyaliteitsverklaring, Wikipedia • Nederlands
  2. Reichskulturkammer, Wikipedia • NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  3. Ariernachweis, Wikipedia • NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisEspañol
  4. Clarissa Christina Wesselink, Kunstenaars van de Kultuurkamer – Geschiedenis en herinnering, proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam, 28 maart 2014
  5. Monument voor het Kunstenaarsverzet, Mook, Wikipedia • Nederlands

The fallen resistance people in Limburg

Artists – 3 pers.

∗ 1922-07-16
† 1944-01-11
- Artists - Maastricht -

Marcel Marie Jules Victor Bellefroid was a painter, watercolorist and illustrator in Maastricht. [1]
In October 1943, he was arrested and imprisoned by the Nazis in Amsterdam. None of the …

This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel.-
Jozef Wilhelmus Hubertus
∗ 1889-11-24
† 1943-01-07
- Artists - Underground Press - Communists & Sympathizers - Maastricht -

Jos Narinx was a painter and one of the founders of the Limburgse Kunstkring [1] (Limburg Art Circle). Arrested on June 24, 1942 for anti-German sentiments and …
wall: left, row 34-03
Eugène Marie Herman Martinus
∗ 1905-03-14
† 1947-02-13
- Underground Press - Artists - Maastricht -

Eugène Roomberg was an artist: watercolorist, painter and illustrator. His working period was from 1920 onwards. [1]
Unless otherwise stated, the information below comes from the …

wall: left, row 35-01