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The names on the walls

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Limburg 1940-1945,
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1940-1945 Special events and backgrounds in the dutch province of Limburg

The eight people in Limburg 1940-’45 whose data were last added or edited: • Henk  Brouwers • Ludo “Lodewijk”  Bleijs • Willem  Lenis • Cor “Clement”  Noordermeer • Nico ”van Griensven”  van Oosterhout • Hendrikje  Smid • Frans  Michels • Kees  Peters

National Socialism and Racism | The genocide of the Jews in Limburg | The genocide of the Romani in Limburg and elsewhere | The resistance in Valkenburg | SiPo Maastricht | The Englandspiel | The OD trial of Maastricht | The Danger of Lists | The Hannibal game | The strikes of April-May 1943 | A military training camp for people in hiding | Between Maas and Peel | The Treason of Maastricht | The Raid of Weert | The Raid on the Distribution Office in Valkenburg | The Strike of Wittem | Eleven imprisoned resistance fighters from Nijmegen murdered | The raid on the Maastricht prison | Revenge actions during the liberation of southern Limburg | Winter ’44-’45 in the liberated territory | The Tears of Roermond | The forced evacuation to Friesland, Groningen and Drente |

The Englandspiel

The Englandspiel or England game, by which dropped agents were intercepted by German intelligence, was much bigger than the Hannibal game or Hannibalspiel.
One night in November 1941, two Dutch agents (on behalf of the british service SOE [1], Special Operations Executive) were dropped by parachutes over the Netherlands. Four months later, one of them was arrested by the occupation forces.
He had to report to England that he had arrived safely. However, the occupiers did not know that the agent used a special code in case he was caught. But the British did not notice this code and sent a new secret agent to the Netherlands, who was also caught by the occupier. He, too, had to radio to England that everything was all right.
Between 1942 and 1943, 54 Dutch secret agents were dropped by the Allies over the Netherlands. Immediately afterwards they were arrested by the occupier.
This was repeated until 1943, when on August 29, two Dutch agents, Ben Ubbink and Pieter Dourlein, managed to escape from the Haaren hostage camp. After their return to England, they clarified the true course of the events.
 [2]
The Gestapo arrested 59 SOE agents after they were dropped over the Netherlands. Of them, 54 died, most of them were shot in the Mauthausen concentration camp. [3]
The first agent, Huub Lauwers, was arrested on March 6, 1942. Ubbink and Dourlein arrived in London at the beginning of 1944.
The period in between was referred to by the Germans as the Englandspiel (England game). Agents who were dropped by the SOE over the Netherlands during this period were arrested immediately, with the exception of Pierre d’Aulnis. The plane in which the latter arrived in the Netherlands scraped the dyke near Urk and had to fly back. The second time, no one knew of his arrival and he went into hiding with people he knew personally. [4]
The big question in this game of cat and mouse soon became: who was playing with whom? The Allies wanted to prevent the Germans from moving larger army units to the eastern front because the Soviet army was not yet strong enough. They were therefore trying to create the impression that an invasion from the west was imminent, even though also the invading army of the Western Allies was not yet ready. But at least there was not yet a land war with heavy losses in the West. Also for the British side, the arrest of Huub Lauwers opened up the possibility of sending misleading messages to the enemy. But this required sacrifices.
It is now known from the opened archives that the SOE knew that the agents dropped over the Netherlands would be arrested. We must therefore assume that the indications from Lauwers and others that they had been caught were deliberately ignored. In this way, the SOE could lead the Germans to believe that the messages they received via the arrested agents were true. It was obviously seen as a necessary evil that agents were sacrificed for this. On the other hand, it meant that major losses on the eastern front could be avoided.
This continued until Ubbink and Dourlein arrived in London. After the escape of Ubbink and Dourlein, the Germans had a false warning sent to London via the hijacked network that two double agents had allegedly escaped and were on their way to London. Did those who interrogated these two know the true facts? Were they perhaps the ones who arranged that Frans van Bilsen ended up on the list of dangerous collaborators because Frans had guided the two across the Belgian border?
It is certain, that the fake messages sent to the Germans via the arrested agents were no longer important to the SOE: the Red Army was advancing in full force and preparations were being made for a landing in the west.

Many other resistance fighters also fell victim to the Englandspiel.
In Limburg, the Bongaerts network fell victim to it.
At the OD trial in Maastricht, where mainly people with a military background from the west of the country were on trial, some of them were victims of the Englandspiel.
For detailed information: Fred Cammaert, Chapter IV [5.3] and Wikipedia [3]
Read also Intelligence.

The victims (alphabetically):
Frans van Bilsen ⦁ Charles Bongaerts ⦁ Wim Burger ⦁ Kees Droogleever-Fortuyn ⦁ Antoine Pierre Marie Fauchey ⦁ Ger Fleischeuer ⦁ Gerard van Grootheest ⦁ Tijmen Huurman ⦁ Willem Christiaan Albert Kroes ⦁ Jacob Lopes de Leaô Laguna ⦁ Johan van Medenbach de Rooy ⦁ Sef van Megen ⦁ Arnold Michels ⦁ Toon Peeters ⦁ Tante Coba Pulskens ⦁ Jaap Sickenga ⦁ Harmen Smink ⦁ Harry Tobben ⦁ Hans Zomer


  1. SOE (Special Operations Executive), Wikipedia • NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançaisPortuguês
  2. monument Engelandvaarders, Mauthausen
  3. Englandspiel Wikipedia • NederlandsDeutschEnglishFrançais
  4. Pierre Louis d’Aulnis de Bourouill, Wikipedia • Nederlands
  5. Dr. F. Cammaert, Het Verborgen Front – Geschiedenis van de georganiseerde illegaliteit in de provincie Limburg tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Doctorale scriptie 1994, Groningen
    1. Hoofdstuk 2. De eerste militair-civiele verzetsformaties p. 85
    2. Hoofdstuk 3. Hulpverlening aan uit Duitsland ontvluchte (Franstalige) krijgsgevangenen p. 136, p. 142
    3. Hoofdst.4. Hulpverlening aan geallieerde piloten en hun bemanningsleden §III. De groep-Bongaerts verstrikt in het Englandspiel: de affaire Vastenhout
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Links List Resistance WW2

Limburgse monumenten vertellen 1940-1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
83

Digital name memorial Oranjehotel Pagina is in het Nederlands
It is one of the most frequently asked questions: who was imprisoned in the Orange Hotel? Unfortunately, there is no complete list of all prisoners. Much of the prison records were destroyed by the German occupiers shortly before the liberation.
See also Oranjehotel & Waalsdorpervlakte82

Jan van Lieshout, Het Hannibalspiel Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
A sinister game during World War II of the counterintelligence service of the Kriegsmarine (Marineabwehr), which led to the downfall of three Dutch-Belgian resistance groups, ISBN 10: 9026945744 ISBN 13: 978902694574880

Loenen Field of Honour Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
Over 3,900 war victims are buried at Loenen Field of Honour and include those who lost their lives in different places around the world due to various circumstances. There are military personnel, members of the resistance, people who escaped the Netherlands and went to England during the first years of the WWII to join the Allies (‘Engelandvaarders’), victims of reprisal and forced labour and …79

Markante feiten in Limburg tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog Pagina is in het Nederlands
Remarkable facts in (Belgian) Limburg during the Second World War
Anyone who thinks that hardly any resistance took place in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium should definitely read this document. The emphasis is on the armed resistance. Author: Mathieu Rutten.78

Stichting Struikelstenen Valkenburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Also 45 Jews deported from Valkenburg did not return. The Stichting Struikelstenen Valkenburg (“Foundation Stumbling Stones Valkenburg”) was established to place so-called stumbling stones in the sidewalk in front of the house from which they were deported, in memory of the murdered Jews from Valkenburg. With a complete list.
See also Stolperstein on Wikipedia.77

Roermond Front City Pagina is in het Nederlands
Series of stories by Eric Munnicks about the last months of the war.
See also the other War Stories of the Roermond Municipal Archives. Unfortunately no translation available. 76

Limburg 75 jaar vrij Pagina is in het Nederlands
75

Belgium WWII Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page disponible en Français;
A virtual platform on Belgium and its inhabitants during the Second World War74

Former concentration camp Natzweiler-Struthof, Alsace Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
European Centre of Deported Resistance Members. Camp and museum73

The Jewish Victims of National Socialism in Cologne | A–Z Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar
72

Documentation Center on the National-Socialism in Cologne Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
Virtual visit of the museum and the memorial in 8 languages, amongst them Hebrew and Spanish71

Camp Vught National Memorial Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
The Camp Vught National Memorial (Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught) is located on a part of the former SS camp Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, also known as Camp Vught (January 1943 – September 1944).70

The Margraten Boys - About the US War Cemetery Page available in English
Harrowing and redeeming, this is the history of a unique ‘adoption’ system. For generations, local families, grateful for the sacrifice of their liberators from Nazi occupation, have cared for not only the graves, but the memories, of over 10,000 US soldiers in the cemetery of Margraten in the Netherlands.
Free e-book by Peter Schrijvers. More e-books on WWII, in English and Dutch, by this author: https://www.google.de/search?hl=de&tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=inauthor:%22Peter+Schrijvers%2268

The Jewish Monument Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
Every victim of the Holocaust who was murdered is memorialised on the Joods Monument with a personal profile. The Jewish Monument is not only suitable for searching and commemorating. You can supplement the monument with photos, documents and stories, by making family connections and adding members of families. To place a call and get in touch with other users. You can also add information about stumbling stones and important other external links.67

When the miners go on strike against the German occupiers Pagina is in het Nederlands
The mine strike in Limburg started on April 29th, 1943. The workload was rising and rising. The first Dutch men were forced to work in Germany. The immediate reason was General Christiansen’s order to arrest all released prisoners of war from the Dutch army again and to transport them to Germany. The strike is broken up by means of executions.66

Persecuted in Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Jews and Sinti in Dutch Limburg during the Second World War
ISBN 978-90-8704-353-7
Dissertation by Herman van Rens on 03/22/2013, University of Amsterdam, slightly edited
© 2013 Hilversum65

Ons verblijf in het dorp Mergel (dagboek) (Meerssen 1989) Pagina is in het Nederlands
Our stay in the village of Mergel (diary, Meerssen 1989
Joop Geijsen from Meerssen tells how he and two other boys went into hiding for a year in the limestone caves just outside Meerssen, which was later called the diver’s inn.
As far as we know, sold out and only available in Dutch libraries.64

Yad Vashem Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
The World Holocaust Remembrance Center63

Beelden van verzet Pagina is in het Nederlands
This book shows, how every Dutch generation deals differently with the past of resistance.
If you can read Dutch, you can find the download link for this essay by Sander Bastiaan Kromhout
Published by the Nationaal Comité 4 en 5 May, 2018
Print edition ISBN 9077294244.62

Regional Historic Center Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
Limburg has numerous specialized archive institutions that preserve relevant historical sources concerning World War II. However, it is not always clear to the public for which information they can go where. Archives have overlapping work areas, organizations and people have been active in the past in different areas and in different fields. So it often takes a long time to find the right place to find information.
Here you can search, but also share your documents with other interested parties. This can be done by donating them to existing archives or museums, or by making digital copies of the available documents or images.61

War deads in Nijmegen 1940 - 1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
With search function60

Foundation Dutch Resistance Monument Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English Page disponible en Français;
Names of resistance fighters in the Netherlands and colonies during the Second World War59

La résistance durant la guerre 1940-1945 Page disponible en Français;
It is mainly about the network “Clarence” whose founder was Walther Dewez; evoked are also the names of various agents of Visé and the Fourons that were part of this movement.58

Fallen resistance people Maastricht Pagina is in het Nederlands
A brief description and a long gallery of portraits57

Stichting Herinnering LO-LKP Pagina is in het Nederlands
The foundation remembrance of LO-LKP wants to raise awareness of the history of the resistance by the organisations LO and LKP. To this end, she makes the contents of his memorial book and many original documents available to the interested reader in digital form.56

The Forgotten Genocide – The Fate of the Sinti and Roma Pagina is in het Nederlands Seite auf Deutsch verfügbar Page available in English
Also known as Gipsies.55

1944-2019 ⇒ South Limburg 75 years free! ⇐ Pagina is in het Nederlands
An overview of the activities in South Limburg around this memorable anniversary in september. It is celebrated in every municipality.54

Short historic American film about the Divers Inn Pagina is in het Nederlands
A silent film, shot by a USAmerican team after the liberation of Valkenburg. The first part has been re-enacted, with the help of the Valkenburg resistance. It shows how people going into hiding (divers) were taken to the divers inn. The man in the hat is always Pierre Schunck. The film starts at his home in Plenkertstraat, Valkenburg. The role of the policeman on the bike at the start is not entirely clear. According to the accompanying text, this is a courier.53

Database persoonsbewijzen uit de Tweede Wereldoorlog Pagina is in het Nederlands
About Dutch identity cards in the Second World War as well as images of identity cards in combination with other documents and genealogical and personal data including life stories.49

Memorial stone for the resistance people Coenen and Francotte Pagina is in het Nederlands
In front of the Provincial Resistance Monument in Valkenburg. Here the underground fighters Sjeng (John) Coenen and Joep (Joe) Francotte were murdered on 5 September 1944, just before the liberation of Valkenburg48

Resistance Memorial of the dutch province of Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Every year on May 4, the commemoration ceremony for the fallen of this province takes place here. Meanwhile, also the veterans are no longer among us anymore.47

Call to everyone, but especially to the residents of Valkenburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
On September 17, 2019 it will be 75 years ago that the town and all villages of the current municipality of Valkenburg aan de Geul were liberated.
To commemorate the liberation and to display the wartime as accurately as possible, the Museum Land van Valkenburg is looking for personal stories, eye witnesses and tangible memories.
Of all these lifelike stories, materials, photos, footage and equipment, we are organizing a unique and as complete as possible overview exhibition under the name “We Do Remember”46

Roll of honor of the fallen, 1940 - 1945 Pagina is in het Nederlands
A website commissioned by the dutch Second Chamber (~ House of Representatives). The Honor Roll of Fallen 1940-1945 includes those who fell as a result of resistance or as a soldier.45

Grenzeloos verzet Pagina is in het Nederlands Page disponible en Français;
Borderless resistance – On Spying Monks, escape lines and the “Hannibal Game”, 1940-1943
ISBN 9789056220723
Paul de Jongh describes in detail an escape line from the Netherlands to Belgium. Unique case study on the resistance in World War II on both sides of the Belgian-Dutch border. Focus is on the Belgian side. Extends the book by Cammaert, especially where it concerns the group Erkens in Maastricht.44

The hidden front Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
History of the organized resistance in the Dutch province of Limburg during World War II
PhD thesis 1994, by CAMMAERT, Alfred Paul Marie.
The complete book in Dutch, with English summary, on the website of the University of Groningen.
Core literature!43

Forgotten History – Pierre Schunck, Resistance Fighter Page available in English
42

World War II in South Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
Very many pictures ordered by municipality. For Valkenburg: many pictures from the Nazi boarding school for boys Reichsschule der SS (former Jesuit convent) and from the days of liberation, by Frans Hoffman.40

Sources Network on World War II (NOB) Pagina is in het Nederlands
Search in 9 million documents, movies and pictures about and from World War II in the Netherlands.39

Institute for Studies on War, Holocaust and Genocide Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
Institute for Studies on War, Holocaust and Genocide
Issues related to war violence generate a lot of interest from society and demand independent academic research. NIOD conducts and stimulates such research and its collections are open to all those who are interested.38

Limburg gaf joden WOII meeste kans Pagina is in het Nederlands
Dutch Jews had the best chance of going into hiding and surviving the Holocaust in the province of Limburg. This is apparent from the dissertation on the persecution of Jews and Sinti in Limburg during the Second World War by the historian from Beek, Herman van Rens at the University of Amsterdam.
More info in Dutch36

Tweede Wereldoorlog en bijzondere rechtspleging Pagina is in het Nederlands
About the trials of Dutchmen who collaborated with the occupiers: The so-called special administration of justice. This page shows you the way. Here you will find photos, the most used keywords, references to interesting archives, indexes, websites, personal stories and guides for research.35

Nederlands Auschwitz Comité Pagina is in het Nederlands
34

Secret Army Zone II/Limburg Pagina is in het Nederlands
About the failed attempt to set up a complete guerrilla army in Belgian Limburg. Use the built-in translator20

resistance in Enschede Pagina is in het Nederlands Page available in English
19

30th Infantry Division Old Hickory Page available in English
Liberators of South-Limburg17

Bond van Oud-Stoottroepers en Stoottroepers Pagina is in het Nederlands
16

The Dutch Underground and the Stoottroepers Page available in English
Stoottroepen (Stormtroopers) consisted of the ancient resistant fighters who entered in the Dutch army after the liberation of Limburg, to participate in the war against the fascism.15

 

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