The fallen resistance fighters in the dutch province of Limburg
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The fallen resistance fighters in the dutch province of Limburg


Initial resistance

We count to the initial resistance such organizations and individuals, who were active before the foundation of the L.O.. Because it was only then that the resistance, at least in our region, acquired an overarching structure and was able to develop on a larger scale. Demobilized soldiers often took the initiative because they had a network at their disposal and felt obligated to do so by their oath of allegiance. Through the Nederlandse Opbouwdienst (Dutch Reconstruction Service), attempts were made to employ demobilized soldiers in government services such as the police and fire departments. There they met each other, and if they were anti-German, this could quickly turn into a nest of resistance.
For many clerics something similar was true because of the clear position of the bishops, including Bishop Lemmens in Limburg and their own conscience. Also among them some came into action already at the beginning of the occupation.
It began with Belgian and French prisoners of war who had escaped from Germany and passed through Limburg on their way home. Many knocked on the doors of churches asking for help, as they were easy to find. They entered the country everywhere along the Dutch eastern border, but a focus was in central and northern Limburg. Among the groups founded by former soldiers, those around Erkens, Bongaerts, Dresen, Smit, and as a national organization the O.D.
A group of its own were the Communists, who also resisted at an early stage, but did not (yet) cooperate with the other early groups, see CPN
From June 1943 onward, the Limburg escape routes all connected to Belgian branches of the Comet Line to Spain (see Cammaert IV §II.2.).

Initial resistance – 56 pers.   ⇒All the fallen resistance people in Limburg
Beers, van
Adrianus Hubertus
∗ 1895-09-24
† 1942-08-31
KZ Groß Rosen
Heerlen - CPN - early resistance - Scaffolder, helped to bring refugees across the border. Arrested on June 24, 1941.
wall: middel, row 05-02
Charles M.H.J.
∗ 1909-08-07
† 1944-11-23
KZ Ladelund, KZ Neuengamme
Heerlen - early resistance - press - Ordedienst - Netw. Bongaerts - police - Married to Trees (Theresa) Dahmen. In 1940 Charles was a reserve officer in the Dutch army and during the five day battle of the Netherlands he fought on the so called “Grebbenberg Line”, that the Dutch army held to the very end, repulsing heavy assaults from the German forces. After this, Charles Bongaerts was the head of the fire service in Heerlen, center of the coal mining area and this gave him access to vehicles which enabled him to play a prominent part in the underground resistance. They put up airmen in their home and transported them south on the long journey to England via Belgium, France and Gibraltar or Switzerland. On one occasion Charles Bongaerts stopped a German convoy and, claiming to be on urgent business, got a mechanic to repair his vehicle while three American airmen were in the back. Source Joseph Marie Phillipe Bongaerts DFC, FC, OHK1
Before the war, he used to be a journalist at the daily newspaper Limburgsch Dagblad in Heerlen. Together with some others, he founded the resistance newspaper Het Vrije Volk (The Free People), not to be confused with the same-named post-war newspaper. It was directed mainly at miners and was very well informed, because they had their people everywhere, even at the SiPo in Maastricht! (Cammaert XI, p. 1077).
His group was infiltrated in 1944 (Englandspiel), Charles was betrayed too and died in a German concentration camp on the 23 November 1944.
wall: left, row 16-01
∗ 1899-05-05
† 1943-05-02
Roermond - CCD - early resistance - Ordedienst - april/may strike - Martinus Antonius Marie Bouman was a first lieutenant in the KNIL (Dutch Colonial Army), then chief controller with the C.C.D. in Limburg and East Brabant. He helped downed Allies and prisoners of war who had escaped from Germany. In 1940 and 1941 still on his own, then with R.H. van de Vin from Neeritter and Pastor Vullinghs from Grubbenvorst. Through the Group Erkens they got a larger network. The miners’ strike was his undoing. See also the article: When the miners went on strike against the German occupiers. Knight Militaire Willems-Orde 4th class.
More in our story Resistance in Valkenburg
wall: right, row 04-04
∗ 1912-02-06
† 1945-04-17
Sittard - early resistance - Group Smit - police - Léon Antoine Bruls from Sittard was an aircraft mechanic. After the capitulation of the dutch army in 1940, he became a member of the mine police at the Maurits state mine. From this we can conclude that he previously worked in the Dutch Air Force. Also from the fact that he managed to get his hands on a considerable amount of weapons, which he gave to Bartels and Dresen. In addition, group Smit in Heerlen was supplied with weapons. (Cammaert Chapter II, p. 100) After a large part of the group Smit had been arrested on February 2, 1942, it was Léon Bruls’ turn on February 17. Sentenced to life imprisonment for illegal possession of weapons and sabotage, murdered in February 1945 while attempting to escape from the concentration camp (Cammaert II, p. 116, Appendix V: Arrests in the Smit group) This differs from what is stated by There we also read: “Two brothers-in-law from Limburg are killed in the war. Léon Bruls did not survive the hardships in several German concentration camps. He died in the Dresden subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp. His brother-in-law Jan Gerard Marie Höchstenbach (born November 28, 1923 in Sittard, died by an attack with a bomb trap on November 7, 1947 in Tasikmalaja in Indonesia.)
wall: right, row 17-04
Elbertus Frederikus
∗ 1903-05-11
† 1943-05-25
Hoensbroek - CPN - early resistance - press - He spent his youth in Zutphen, his places of residence in South Limburg were Brunssum and Hoensbroek (from 1931). According to the biography on, he was a gardener during the war and worked for the Koninklijke Nederlandse Heidemaatschappij, or Heidemij for short. In the card index of the CPN he is listed as a miner. He worked for the communist newspaper De Vonk. Arrested on February 5, 1941, a few days after the attack of German troops on the Soviet Union.
wall: middel, row 10-02
David Leo
∗ 1923-12-07
† 1942-08-14
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel. - Maastricht - Jew - early resistance - Group Dresen - Jewish butcher’s son, residing at Lenculenstraat 9 in Maastricht. He belonged to the civilian branch of the Dresen group, which was mainly engaged in the distribution of illegal leaflets and writings. For example, to finance the purchase of weapons, pictures of the royal family were sold. On May 21, 1941, David Leo was arrested by the SiPo Maastricht because signs "Verboden voor Joden" (Forbidden for Jews) had been destroyed in the city park. A stumbling stone was placed in the sidewalk in front of Lenculenstraat 9.
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel.04-07
∗ 1891-04-28
† 1945-02-13
Außenkommando Dautmergen
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel. - Schin op Geul - Dutch-Paris - early resistance - Refugee helper, from Schin-op-Geul, working for Wagons Lits, member of the French-Dutch group Dutch-Paris with the help of his whole family, arrested on February 12 1944.
He fell under the German category of Nacht und Nebel prisoner. In this program, many prisoners disappeared without any trace.
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel.01-02
∗ 1909-01-01
† 1945-03-09
Venlo - early resistance - L.O. - Jean Marie Dael was, among other things, a hotel clerk, a driver, and a cook before finally finding his vocation in the bookstore and library De Boemerang on Geldersepoort. He was the father of six children. He had been involved in the resistance since the German invasion. His apartment and store on Geldersepoort served as a meeting place for the resistance and as a transit address for people in hiding and British pilots, because it was assumed that a place where many people went in and out would not attract attention. But they were observed from a pub across the street. On May 12, 1944, Toon Mooren from Vierlingsbeek, a pilot helper who was hiding there, was arrested in Dael’s apartment. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to free Mooren, including an attempt at bribery. A week later, the brothers Leo and Jan Dael were also arrested. Leo Dael was sent to Mauthausen via Maastricht and Vught, where he died on March 1, 1945; his brother and Toon Mooren died in the same camp on March 9 and 5, 1945, respectively. His family did not learn until 1947 that Jan Dael had died in Mauthausen.
wall: right, row 27-05
∗ 1907-09-12
† 1945-03-01
Venlo - early resistance - L.O. - Leopold Franciscus Dael was a self-employed cab driver and night watchman in a school seized by the Germans as an office building. He and his brother Jan took part in the resistance from the beginning.
On May 12, 1944, Toon Mooren from Vierlingsbeek, a pilot helper who was hiding there, was arrested in Jan Dael’s house. Jan’s bookstore had already been observed for some time from a pub across the street. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to free Mooren, including an attempt at bribery. A week later, the brothers Leo and Jan Dael were also arrested. Leo Dael was sent to Mauthausen via Maastricht and Vught, where he died on March 1, 1945; his brother and Toon Mooren died in the same camp on March 9 and 5, 1945, respectively. His family did not learn until 1947 that Jan Dael had died in Mauthausen.
wall: right, row 28-01
Karel Joseph
∗ 1917-10-10
† 1943-03-02
KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
Hoensbroek - early resistance - press - Group Smit - In his younger years he was active in the youth movement. When he was drafted into military service, he was a casual laborer. From September 2, 1937 with the 3rd Mounted Field Artillery Regiment, where he rose to the rank of wachtmeester (~ sergeant). After the surrender of the Dutch army in May 1940, he was demobilized. Became a member of the Smit Group, which initially attracted mostly ex-soldiers. After the war, his father said he intended to go to England. According to the entry register at Maastricht prison, he was a bread deliverer at the time. (Source: his biography on, see link) According to he was a miner as well.
Arrested February 13, 1942, sentenced to Zuchthausstrafe (hard prison), and died March 6, 1943. (Cammaert chapter II, Appendix V , Arrestaties in de groep-Smit = arrests in the Smit group) Such differences in reporting the date of death in a concentration camp are common. For example, because someone was still seen after the camp administration had already declared him/her dead. Sometimes it’s not even clear in which concentration camp someone died, especially if it was towards the end of the war. Then there is usually no single grave.
wall: middel, row 11-02
∗ 1901-03-19
† 1944-09-05
Dieren, gem. Rheden
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel. - Nijmegen - early resistance - K.P. - press - The outskirts of Limburg - In his civil profession, Theo Dobbe was a chief representative and active throughout the Netherlands. In the southern part of the country he became the organizer of the LKP, the umbrella organization of the Knokploegen (commandos). In 1943 he became head of the special unit Opruimingsdienst (Clean-up Service).
He was not among the fallen who lived in Limburg and is therefore not listed on a wall of the provincial resistance memorial. But both J.W. Hofwijk and Fred Cammaert mention his important role in their respective chapters about the Knokploegen in Limburg.
By Royal Decree of September 11, 1951, No. 21, entered in the Register of Knights of the 4th Class of the Military Order of William:

…for having distinguished himself in battle by outstanding acts of courage, policy, and loyalty, persistently fighting the enemy occupier with great vigor and ingenuity and in all fields of underground resistance during the period from May 1940 until his heroic death in September 1944, which acts greatly benefited the Allied war effort. In particular, through the following acts, often with imminent danger of death.

  1. Already shortly after the surrender of the Netherlands in May 1940, he and five others succeeded in obtaining arms and ammunition in Naarden.
  2. On May 14, 1941, an enemy camp in Amsterdam was blown up with teletype and signal equipment, killing several enemy officers.
  3. After his arrest in Amsterdam on November 24, 1941, and his transfer to the Willem II barracks in Utrecht, he managed to escape in a very daring manner, and although he was sentenced to death in absentia in December, he continued the resistance undaunted;
  4. In August and September 1942, he set fire to bogs or vehicles loaded with sod in the Veluwe to prevent the enemy from camouflaging his airfields;
  5. After forming a Knokploeg in Nijmegen in mid-1943, he and other illegal groups persistently sabotaged enemy transports in all possible ways and, from June 1944, provided coverage by carrier pigeons from the Mookerheide for the benefit of the Allied war effort; he also helped Allied pilots escape across the border.
  6. Finally, when he tried to escape shortly before his execution, he snatched the pistol of one of his guards, whereupon the escort immediately opened fire on him and he was mortally wounded.

Source: De Militaire Willems-Orde Sijthoff Pers ISBN 90-70682-01-X

More sources:

This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel.04-10
∗ 1905-12-10
† 1942-11-12
Heerlen - CPN - early resistance - press - Worker in a factory, liaison man for the party newspaper De Waarheid. Arrested on January 13, 1942.
wall: middel, row 06-01
∗ 1885-10-18
† 1944-01-05
Fort Rhijnauwen, Bunnik
Maastricht - early resistance - Group Erkens - Alphonse Henri Louis Dresen was chief dispatcher in Maastricht at the Dutch Railway Company and as such he knew everything about train movements in his area. Married, belonged to the resistance group Erkens-De Liedekerke, arrested in July 1942, executed on 5.1.1944 in Bunnik near Utrecht. Buried in Maastricht.
He was a brother of Pierre Dresen
wall: left, row 30-04
∗ 1897-02-07
† 1942-12-01
Maastricht - early resistance - Group Dresen - Resident of Maastricht, demobilized professional soldier, temporary cashier of the distribution service, founder of the Dresen group, which initially also called itself the RAF group. (Cammaert hoofdstuk II-II. De groep-Dresen, from p. 94). See also Mestreech online.
He was a brother of Alf Dresen
wall: left, row 31-01
Duijnkerke /Duin… /Duyn…,
Jan M.
∗ 1902-10-25
† 1943-03-04
Maastricht - early resistance - Group Dresen - The barge master J.M. Duynkerke usually transported cement in the Netherlands and abroad with his boat Maria, but also refugees. The home port of the Maria was the old harbor of Maastricht, the Bassin. Arrested 09-12-1941.
wall: left, row 31-02
Paulus Anthonius
∗ 1902-01-30
† 1945-04-27
KZ Ebensee
Maastricht - early resistance - press - Group Dresen - Paulus Anthonius (Tom) Engeln, a shopkeeper and leather goods manufacturer living in Maastricht, was of German descent and divorced from a German wife, Betsy Wanger, with whom he had three children. In 1942 they were 4, 7 and 12 years old. In the back room of his shop, he printed the illegal newspapers “Vrij Nederland” and the “Oranje Post,” which were distributed through the Dresen group. He sheltered the Amsterdam Jew Isidoor Brandon, who also became his business partner, and Brandon’s girlfriend Cor Meijer. Brandon owed him money and was also afraid for his own safety. For this reason, he and Meijer betrayed Tom and the entire Dresen group. On Friday, November 28, 1941, he and several others were arrested. In the following days, almost the entire Dresen/Hage resistance group, twenty-three resisters, were arrested. The three most important members of the “Oranje Koerier” group, Pierre Dresen, Dirk Hage and Gerrit Spierings, were sentenced to death. Tom and eight others were sent to various camps such as Buchenwald and the "Nacht und Nebel" camp of Natzweiler-Struthof (Alsace) and eventually to the Ebensee concentration camp, where he finally died of exhaustion in the infirmary on April 27, 1945, a week before the camp was liberated. He was 43 years old then.
There is a stumbling stone in front of the house Bredestraat 37, Maastricht
Detailed account in the biography of Tom Engeln. This is a translation of the biography of Tom Engeln at
wall: middel, row 14-02
Niek /Nic
Van der Maas/ Niek
∗ 1894-10-10
† 1943-10-09
Fort Rhijnauwen (prov. Utrecht
Maastricht - Sittard - early resistance - Group Erkens - Nicolaas Egidius Erkens was married to a Liège woman, he spoke French well and was an organizer of cross-border resistance to Belgium, especially with regard to smuggling refugees (Group Erkens). Cammaert writes (Chapter II, p.85 and 87), that he had two sisters in Sittard, with whom he was in hiding for a while and where he was arrested on November 11, 1942. This was the result of the Hannibalspiel, an infiltration by the Marineabwehr in Groningen.
wall: right, row 18-03
∗ 1889-02-25
† 1945-03-29
KZ Allach, Dachau
Oirsbeek - early resistance - At the request of Rector Voesten from Heerlen, the municipal secretary A.J.G. Fleischeuer from Oirsbeek helped Jews. Voesten probably belonged to both the group around Father Beatus and the group around Bongaerts. On February 15, 1943, ten Jews arrived at the home of the municipal secretary, who had his house remodeled to provide adequate housing. As a result of the infiltration by H. Vastenhout and his people (Englandspiel) into the Bongaerts group, Fleischeuer and the Jews fell into the hands of the Sipo on November 16, 1943 (see Cammaert Chapter IV, p. 672).
wall: right, row 02-05
∗ 1909-09-06
† 1944-04-05
Bergen Belsen
Brunssum - early resistance - press - Group Smit - The primary school teacher J.M.R. Giebels was a member of the Smit group. The cost of the weapons purchases was met with the proceeds from the sale of photographs of the royal family. The British R.A.F. dropped these regularly, whereupon Giebels, the pit assistant overseer A.M. van Puffelen from Brunssum and the photographer J. Daniëls from Maastricht reproduced them. (Cammaert chapter II, p. 100). Since the group-Smit was also engaged in the distribution of illegal printed matter, we can assume that they also duplicated other things. Arrested, like almost the entire group, on February 17, 1942. See also: Arrests in the Group-Smit (Cammaert Chapter II, p. 118).
wall: left, row 05-03
Jules G.H.J.
∗ 1897-03-31
† 1943-10-09
Bunnik (Utrecht)
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel. - Belgium - early resistance - Group Erkens - He was not a resistance fighter in the Dutch province of Limburg, but was in close contact with them and therefore also appears on this list. He was a general practitioner in ’s-Gravenvoeren (Fouron-le-Comte) since 1925. In 1940, he became a member of the Clarence resistance network, of which he became the local leader. He collected a lot of information, among other things, on railroad movements. As a result of the Hannibalspiel he was arrested on October 15, 1942 and locked up in the prison of Saint-Léonard and the Camp Vught (NL). He was shot in Bunnik. He is buried in the cemetery of Fouron-le-Comte.
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel.02-02
Gronden, van der
Gerrit J.
∗ 1895-12-13
† 1943-01-02
Maastricht - Valkenburg - CPN - early resistance - press - Driver and mechanic at the GGD (municipal medical service), married. As a driver, he also disseminated banned writings. He helped people to flee and provided medical care when needed. All this in collaboration with his brother A.C. van der Gronden (Source: ARCH00347.148, see link below.)
Picture also at
He took care of Jewish people in hiding, was arrested on Jan. 13th 1942
Fred Cammaert wrote in chapter 10: “in his garage on the Heugemer Weg in Maastricht he made copies of De Vonk, the Limburg edition of De Waarheid.” … “member of the Municipal Air Protection Service.” “ … Arrested “on january 13th, 1942” … “He died on December 5th 1942 in the Neuengamme concentration camp.” (near Hamburg), aged 47. His brother A.C. van der Gronden participated in the sub-district of Valkenburg of the LO.
wall: right, row 26-03
M.J. (Sjef)
∗ 1921-08-23
† 1944-04-18
KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
Schaesberg - early resistance - Group Smit - Miner at the Oranje-Nassau IV, arrested on February 2, 1942, sentenced to prison. Died of the consequences of the bombing of Oranienburg (Cammaert Chapter II: Appendix V, Arrests in the Smit group)
wall: right, row 13-02
∗ 1909-02-17
† 1943-04-03
Maastricht - early resistance - press - Group Dresen - After his demobilization as a soldier in 1940, Dirk Izak Hage became a customs officer with the rank of hulpkommies and found some like-minded people in the Caberg (Maastricht) customs office. He was to play such an important role in the Dresen group that it is also called the Dresen-Hage group. He bought through L.F.R. Spierings from Rekem (Belgium) a spirit duplicator by means of which leaflets were produced. Initially, the device switched between Dresen, Hage and Bartels, after that it stood in the presbytery in Geulle at Droitcourt. Hage took the lead in setting up a Maastricht version of the "Oranje Post," a clandestine information bulletin.
He is listed on the memorial in the State Tax Office in Maastricht (see link).
wall: middel, row 15-01
∗ 1901-10-18
† 1944-11-24
Maastricht - early resistance - L.O. - Edmond Marie Hubert Ghislain Henri Houtappel was a wine merchant and ran a wholesale grocery store at Wolfstraat 8 (Fa. Wed. R. W. Hustinx, Koffiebranderij, groothandel in koloniale waren). Captain of the Reserve in the Dutch Army, he was in charge of the Wahlwiller Border Guard Company of the 13th Regiment of Infantry (on the border with Germany) during the mobilization of 1938-1940. In his military function, he photographed there, also on behalf of the Belgian intelligence, German positions in the Westwall (called Siegfried Line by the Allies). Via his brother-in-law Louis Evrard Hustinx, Belgian consul in Maastricht, this information was passed on to Brussels. His neighbor in Wolfstraat was the butcher Joseph W. Ummels. They had broken a passage between the two houses in the cellar, as a possible escape route. This was of no use. Arrested on May 10, 1944 as a result of betrayal by Gonnie Zeguers-Boere.
See his story at Mestreech online and at Cammaert VIb, from page 649.
wall: left, row 32-02
Père Hugues /Pater Hugo
∗ 1900-11-17
† 1943-10-09
Bunnik (Utrecht)
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel. - Belgium - early resistance - press - Group Erkens - priest - He was not a resistance fighter in the Dutch province of Limburg, but was in close contact with them and therefore also appears on this list. His resistance activity began by helping escaped French prisoners of war to continue their escape. He was a Cistercian monk in the Abbey of Val-Dieu and was ordained priest on October 21, 1932. He then taught church history at Val-Dieu, was curator of the abbey museum and novice master. He and his confrere Stephanus Muhren, whom he trained, were active in the Clarence intelligence network (dr. Jules Goffin from Fouron-le-Comte) and active in the by Clarence people so called group Holland (of Nic. Erkens, at the time in hiding wirh his sisters in Sittard). Val-Dieu and the Fouron villages are located in the middle of the Liège-Maastricht-Aachen tri-border area and were therefore predestined to serve as hubs for escape networks. The two monks hid fugitives in the monastery and on the surrounding farms and watched the German transport activity on the rail lines of the border area. They were assisted by their German abbot, Alberich Steiger, who, among other things, banqueted with high German officers. Together with Fr. Hugo and Pol Nolens, vicar at Charneux, a clandestine newspaper reproduced with a spirit duplicator at Charneux was distributed, denouncing the misdeeds of National Socialism in the three national languages (La Tribune Libre in French, Het Vrije Woord in Dutch, and Das Freie Wort in German).
Arrested on March 19, 1943, the day after Fr. Stephen was arrested by the Geheime Feldpolizei (Secret Field Police) as a result of the Hannibal game, Fr. Hugo Jacobs was subjected to harsh interrogations in Liège in an attempt (unsuccessfully) to extract from him a confession about the abbot’s complicity or involvement. On August 11, 1943, he and ten others were sentenced to death by a court-martial in Utrecht for espionage and favoring the enemy. They were shot in Fort Rijnauwen near Utrecht on October 9, 1943. On the way to the execution site, he and his confrere wore their white Cistercian monk’s robes and loudly sang a religious hymn. His body was cremated, and the ashes were later buried in the abbey cemetery. A memorial plaque commemorates him in Fort Rijnauwen and in the abbey church of Val-Dieu.
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel.02-03
∗ 1923-01-13
† 1943-03-29
Heerlen - Dutch-Paris - early resistance - Group Smit - Joseph Jean Elise Janssen was an employee of a mine, a member of the Smits group and of the international resistance group and escape line Dutch-Paris, as were his uncle Joseph Lejeune and Jean Caubo.
wall: left, row 15-05
∗ 1902-02-06
† 1942-06-22
Maastricht - CPN - early resistance - press - Representative for vacuum cleaners. In the municipal elections in Maastricht on June 14, 1939, Bèr Kraft headed the list of the CPN (Communists). They achieved 5.18%. (
On December 8, 1940, he was arrested by order of the security police SiPo for helping communist refugees from Germany in the 1930s.
On February 28, 1941, five communists were arrested in Maastricht, allegedly on suspicion of involvement in the miners’ strike. More likely, this was a sign that the "friendship" between Hitler and Stalin was cooling (see below). In addition to Bèr Kraft, these were André Bos, Chris Heuts, J.J. Baartscheer, and Bernhard Holty. They were released after a month. In his house the clandestine magazine De Vonk was printed. On June 23 or 25, 1941, Lambert was arrested for the third time.This has everything to do with the German hunt for communists after the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact was broken.
He was imprisoned in Aachen, Maastricht, Schoorl and finally Neuengamme.
Source: (pdf).
wall: left, row 33-03
∗ 1887-03-30
† 1944-03-02
Helden - early resistance - L.O. - carillon - Cornelis Krans lived on a farm in Helden and early in the war he sheltered already a Jewish family in an underground hiding place just a stone’s throw from his house. When, after the strikes of April and May 1943, which included the miners’ strike, hiding took on mass dimensions, the resistance movement in Venlo came up with the idea of setting up military training camps in the forests of North and Middle Limburg. For this purpose, Krans provided some dismountable chicken coops. These were set up in the woods behind the farm. Since the people in hiding did not take their own security very seriously, all sorts of rumors soon began to circulate. The consequences of so much gossip could not fail to be felt. In July 1943, a large German contingent raided the forest camp, which could be evacuated just in time.The inhabitants got off with a fright. But not Krans. He was arrested and taken to a prison in Germany. Seriously ill, he returned to the Netherlands, where he died in March 1944. (Dr. Fred Cammaert, speech on the occasion of the unveiling of the memorial plaque at the Peace Carillon).
wall: left, row 20-05
∗ 1921-02-28
† 1945-04-29
Voerendaal - early resistance - press - Group Smit - Paul Leon Willem Antoon Leclou attended the MTS (Secondary Technical School). Arrested on February 2, 1942, sentenced in Amsterdam, classified as a Nacht und Nebel (NN, Night & Fog) prisoner. He succumbed in the concentration camp Dora (Nordhausen) on 29 April 1945, i.e. shortly after the liberation of that camp.
wall: right, row 35-04
∗ 1924-04-15
† 1945-04-07
Maastricht - early resistance - K.P. - Group Dresen - person in hiding - Hendrik Th. Lemson was a tax official (direct taxes, Maastricht) and belonged to the so called Belastinggroep Maastricht (A resistance group of mainly tax officials who continued the work of Group Dresen after it had been busted). He had to go into hiding and did so in Makkum (Frisia), where he joined the combat unit KP-Sneek, group III. Arrested in a major raid as a result of betrayal by Dutch SiPo V-men Jan Harm Brouwer and Matthijs Adolf Ridderhof. He was executed behind the then police station of Makkum. His name is on the resistance memorial in Makkum along with those of five other executed resistance fighters. Five people of the KnokPloeg, which by then had become part of the Binnenlandse Strijdkrachten (Domestic Forces): Bob Dijkstra (BS), Sjoerd Adema (BS), Koos Keller (BS), Henk Lemson (BS), Jan Emmens (BS), as well as the hospitable cattle farmer Fetze Elgersma of the LO. as well as the hider Herman Falkena. Buried in Makkum.
Memorial in the tax office of Maastricht.
wall: left, row 32-04
Liedekerke de Pailhe, de
Raphael R.E.J.G.
∗ 1903-04-15
† 1943-10-09
Fort Rhijnauwen, prov. Utrecht
Eijsden - Belgium - early resistance - Group Erkens - He was one of eleven members of the Dutch resistance group around Nick Erkens executed by the Germans in fort Rhijnauwen near Bunnik, province of Utrecht. He was a reserve lieutenant in the Belgian army but lived in the Netherlands.
wall: left, row 08-02
Jo S.H.
∗ 1901-02-05
† 1945-02-11
Maastricht - early resistance - L.O. - press - carillon - District leader of the LO in Maastricht. Unusual in the Catholic south of the Netherlands at that time: this district leader was not only a Social Democrat, but also a reformed “Hollander”, i.e. someone from “above the rivers”. “On May 11, 1940, a group of Belgian prisoners of war was brought to the station via the Wilhelminasingel. Thijs Lokerman, a train driver from Maastricht and member of the city council for the SDAP (Social Democrats), diverted the attention of some guards by a fake brawl with a friend, so that some POWs could escape. This may have been the first act of resistance in Maastricht.” (Mestreech online).
In his speech at the unveiling of the commemorative plaque at the Peace Carillon, Dr. Fred Cammaert said, among other things: “Maastricht resident and resistance pioneer Jo Lokerman worked as an engine driver on the Dutch railroads. At the beginning of the war, he began helping French-speaking prisoners of war, and later downed Allied airmen. Lokerman used his job to distribute illegal magazines on the trains and made connections with Belgian colleagues so that British and Jewish refugees could be transported by train to France and, if possible, Switzerland and Spain." (Cammaert VIb, p. 643.) He was also one of the founders of the Maastricht LO, which he headed for a time. As a result of betrayal by brothel madam Zeguers-Boere, he fell into the hands of the SiPo on May 9, 1944. (Cammaert VIb, from page 649)
He died in Neuengamme concentration camp in February 1945.
wall: left, row 32-05
Hendrik A.C.
∗ 1886-03-28
† 1943-02-05
Maastricht - early resistance - Group Dresen - Shipping agent. His sons sailed on a barge. He and his wife ran her parents’ boatmen’s pub at Franschensingel. The regulars’ table or the back room soon became a regular meeting place for the Group Dresen. Of course, Meulensteen knew reliable boatsmen for clandestine cargo to Belgium. In and around the house he hid weapons and explosives stolen from the ENCI limestone open pit. Meulensteen also gathered military intelligence.
Source and further information: Biography on (pdf)
Arrested on December 2, 1941 as a result of betrayal by Tom Engeln’s companion. For more details see there.
Stolperstein (stumbling stone) in front of the house Fransensingel 65
See also Cammaert, Chapter II, §II: The Dresen Group).
wall: left, row 34-02
Père Étienne /Pater Stephanus
∗ 1908-09-14
† 1943-10-09
Bunnik (Utrecht)
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel. - Belgium - early resistance - press - Group Erkens - priest - Petrus („Piet“) Johannes Cornelis Muhren was not a resistance fighter in the Dutch province of Limburg, but was in close contact with them and therefore also appears on this list. His German ancestors still wrote "Mühren", but in Dutch it is pronounced the same way.He entered the novitiate of the Dutch Cistercian Abbey of Mariënkroon in 1929 as Brother Canisius, but in 1933 he moved to the short-staffed Abbey of Val-Dieu in Aubel, Belgium, just over the border of Dutch South Limburg. There he received the monastic name Stephen (French: Étienne). He was ordained a priest in Val-Dieu on July 5, 1936. He was cantor for the next years and taught ecclesiastical law, dogmatics and philosophy at the internal teaching institution. When the Wehrmacht invaded in 1940, he initially fled to the west, distrusting his German abbot, but then returned and joined the Resistance with his confrere Hugo Jacobs. Through the general practitioner Jules Goffin, they came into contact with the intelligence and resistance network Clarence and the Erkens group. He observed the transports of the German army on the railroad lines in the area on extended bicycle tours and explained these tours with visits to women in need of pastoral help, which earned him the nickname Père Amoureux.
Val-Dieu and Voeren are located in the middle of the Liège-Maastricht-Aachen three-country triangle and were therefore virtually predestined as a hub for escape networks. Apart from monitoring German railroad activity, the two monks also hid fugitives in the monastery and on the surrounding farms of the border area. They were sustained discreetely by their German abbot Alberich Steiger, who, among other things, dined with high German officers. He and his confrere, together with Pol Nolens, vicar at Charneux, edited an illegal newspaper, reproduced with a spirit duplicator at Charneux, denouncing the misdeeds of National Socialism in the three Belgian languages (La Tribune Libre in French, Het Vrije Woord in Dutch, and Das Freie Wort in German).
On March 18, 1943, one day before Fr. Hugo, he was arrested by the Geheime Feldpolizei (Secret Police of the German army) as a result of the Hannibal Game. On August 11, 1943, he and ten others were sentenced to death by a court-martial in Utrecht for espionage and favoring the enemy. They were shot at Fort Rijnauwen near Utrecht (Netherlands) on October 9, 1943. On the way to the execution site, he and his confrere wore their white Cistercian monk’s robes and loudly sang a religious hymn. His body was cremated, and the ashes were later buried in the Val-Dieu monastery cemetery. A memorial plaque commemorates him in Fort Rijnauwen and in the abbey church of Val-Dieu.
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel.02-04
Charles Joseph
∗ 1916-03-05
† 1944-01-18
KZ Groß-Beeren, Kreis Teltow
Valkenburg - early resistance - press - The weekly magazine Het Land van Valkenburg wrote about him: “He refused to sign a declaration of loyalty and went into hiding. Arrested (date unknown) for spreading illegal literature.”
At the Oorlogsgraven­stichting there is a source link where he is mentioned as a student at the Katholieke Economische Hoogeschool in Tilburg. Furthermore, contrary to the above, we read there: “Employed at the Arado Flugzeug Werke in Brandenburg upon Havel. Was arrested on October 6, 1943. The reason was a statement in a private conversation held at the beginning of September. He was sentenced to two months in prison. Around 15 December the family received a message from the Swedish Society that Nyst had not been released, but transferred to a Arbeitserziehungslager in Gross Beeren and from there to the concentration camp in Sachsenhausen near Oranienburg. In the meantime on 18 February 1944 the family in Maastricht was informed that on January 18th, 1944 he had succumbed from ‘Herzschwäche’ (cardiac insufficiency) in Gross Beeren.“
More in our story Resistance in Valkenburg
Charles Joseph Nijst op de lijst van personen die tijdens de bezetting belangrijk waren voor Valkenburg.
wall: right, row 26-04
Oppen, van
Jules Louis Antoine
∗ 1882-05-10
† 1943-02-16
Venlo - early resistance - priest - Dean Jules van Oppen was the first clergyman in Venlo and all of Limburg to pay for his resistance with death. After the German invasion on May 10, 1940, he opposed the German films that were shown in the cinemas of Venlo. According to the Church, they were immoral and anti-patriotic. The Germans took him to task several times for his film recommendations. However, the dean was not deterred by this. So he was arrested in September 1942 after his warning against the film Kora Terry starring Marika Rökk, which was shown in Venlo cinemas in May 1942, and ended up in the concentration camp in Amersfoort, from where he was taken to Vught on January 16, 1943. He died there on February 16 or 17. (Source: Gemeentearchief Venlo)
Three priests of the catholic Martinus Church paid for their resistance with their lives. On the memorial plaque at this church we find their names and also that of the Protestant priest Henk de Jong.
wall: right, row 30-04
Jozef J.G.
∗ 1911-01-03
† 1945-02-08
Eijsden - early resistance - Group Erkens - Joseph Jean Gerard Partouns was a laboratory assistant. J. Arpots, J. Partouns, and J. Reintjens were three young men, one of whom worked for the Dutch railways. The three called themselves the Orange Triangle. They wrote down all the details about the rail traffic and passed the data to the town clerk Hubert Smeets, who typed them on cigarette papers in the town hall. Arrested in Eijsden on 05-11-1942. (Cammaert hoofdstuk II, p. 78) Imprisoned in Nacht und Nebel camp Natzweiler, died in Vaihingen, according to the War Graves Foundation on 14-01-1945.
See also: Monument of the Fallen Resistance Fighters in Vroenhof, Eijsden.
wall: left, row 08-03
Peussens /Peusens,
Chris H.J.
∗ 1907-05-28
† 1942-12-30
KZ Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg
Eijsden - early resistance - unorganized resistance - Christiaan Hubertus Josephus Peusens was a fodder trader. Three members of the Peussens family from Eijsden, two brothers and a sister, had several independent connections to resistance fighters in Amsterdam. With the exception of two policemen, these relationships were bona fide. For some time, the trafficking of human beings continued without significant incident. Until July 18, 1942, probably a few dozen Jews crossed the Belgian border with the help of the Peussens. On that day, four members of the Amsterdam SiPo and two gendarmes arrested the three helpers. They were probably informed by the Amsterdam police. C.H.J. Peussens died in Sachsenhausen on December 30, 1942. M.J.H. Peussens was released from the same camp and returned to his hometown on April 28, 1944. Miss J.M.H. Peussens was not deported to Germany and was able to return home after a short stay in a prison in Amsterdam." (Cammaert V, p.397)
There was also a C. Peussens active in the Blok group, the group for the pilots of the Belastinggroep (fiscal group) in Maastricht, but this is not the same person.
See also: Monument to the fallen resistance fighters (Vroenhof, Eijsden)
wall: left, row 08-04
∗ 1896-01-18
† 1942-12-28
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel. - Maastricht - early resistance - priest - Robert Hubert Willem Regout was a Jesuit and legal scholar. In 1934, he received his doctorate from the University of Nijmegen on the doctrine of “just war”. From 1939 he was an associate professor of international law there. During the occupation, he provided information everywhere on the constraints of international law to which any occupying power had to adhere, e.g., in a June 1940 article De rechtstoestand in bezet gebied (The Legal Situation in Occupied Territory) on the Hague Land Warfare Regulations, original text see link below. He was feared by the occupiers for his attitude, agitation, and expertise, and was arrested in late June 1940.
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel.04-24
Jan Joseph
∗ 1883-05-21
† 1944-03-03
Valkenburg - early resistance - Group Erkens - Member of the early resistance group Erkens in Maastricht, co-owner of the guesthouse Samoshuis, the later hotel Parkhotel Atlanta. Nic Erkens spent some time in hiding with him, arrested in Valkenburg during the Hannibalspiel for spreading resistance literature on November 19, 1942. Piet Roks came home too late due to circumstances, saw the police cars standing in front of their house and could escape in time. Jan Joseph died in the Nacht und Nebel camp Natzweiler (Alsace) on 3 March 1944.
Totenzettel (Mark the spelling!)
See also The Fallen in Valkenburg
More in our story Resistance in Valkenburg
Jan Joseph Rocks/Roks op de lijst van personen die tijdens de bezetting belangrijk waren voor Valkenburg.
wall: right, row 27-02
Rooyackers /Rooijackers,
Wim A.
∗ 1918-03-13
† 1944-09-05
Heerlen - early resistance - K.P. - press - police - Wilhelmus Antonius (Wim) Rooijackers was a trade correspondent and a member of the mine police. Almost from the beginning of the war he was involved with prisoners of war who had escaped from Germany. (Cammaert III, p. 217) He also was involved in a failed assassination attempt (Cammaert IV, p. 286) and he was active in the group that distributed the illegal magazine Het Parool in South Limburg. (Cammaert XI, p. 1050) He was busted together with the midwife A.M. Bensen-Offermans, who was liberated in the Maastricht prison raid.
But Wim Rooijackers was one of many executed in Vught on Dolle Dinsdag (Mad Tuesday).
wall: left, row 17-03
∗ 1886-09-21
Amby (Maastricht)
† 1945-04-21
Obrnice (Č)
This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel. - Amby - Belgium - early resistance -

Ceremony Stumbling Stones

Paul Fernand Cécile Ghislain Marie Schoenmaeckers from Amby (today a quarter of Maastricht) married Hélène Palmers on June 12, 1911 in Stevoort near Hasselt. From then on they lived in Rekem (Belgian Limburg). During the occupation, they joined the Comet escape line, together with their sons, Michel and Jean and his wife Marguerite De Bissy. They worked there for Line (pronounce: Leene). That was the pseudonym of Olympe Félicie Henriette DOBY. Paul and his wife Helene were also hiding a Jewish girl in their home. Most of the refugees this group helped on (mostly to Brussels) were downed allied airmen, “supplied” mainly from the Maastricht region, especially by Paul’s sisters Hélène and Adèle, who were still living in their parents’ house in Amby. Paul and his youngest son Michel were arrested on November 26, 1943; Jean just managed to escape. Paul died in a transport near Obrnice (German: Obernitz), now the Czech Republic.
Michel was born on December 8, 1919 in Rekem (B). He took particular care of people hiding in the forests around the villages of Lanaken and Rekem. Was murdered on September 15, 1944 in the concentration camp Nacht und Nebel-Lager KZ Sonnenburg at the age of 24. The goal of these special camps was to make the resistance fighters disappear administratively, nothing was written down about the prisoners and their families were not informed.
Schoenmaeckers Cross for Paul and Michel in the forest near Rekem: N 50° 55.259 E 005° 39.935
Stolperstein for Paul and his sister in front of their parents’ house, Bergerstraat 2-4 in Amby.

This person is not (yet?) listed on the walls of the chapel.02-05
Schoenmaeckers /-makers,
∗ 1894-07-03
Kapelhof-Rekem (B)
† 1945-07-11
Sankt Gallen (CH)
- Amby - early resistance - Group Erkens -

Ceremony Stumbling Stones

Marie Clotilde Hélène Schoenmaeckers came from a true resistance family. Her sister Adèle and her brother Paul with his sons were also closely involved in the resistance. She was unmarried and did volunteer work. Hélène’s mother, Pauline de Rosen, was friends with the couple De Liedekerke in Eijsden. Because they spoke French well, Hélène and her sister Adèle were asked by count de Liedekerke to help care for French-speaking escaped prisoners of war. They also helped other refugees. Among others, with the help of their brother Paul, who had been living in Belgium again since his marriage and was a member of the Comet escape line. The fugitives were brought to Belgium, either in Eijsden or crossing the Meuse River from Borgharen (NL) to Smeermaas (B). Hélène and Adèle were arrested at their parents’ home, the Withuishof in Amby, on November 5, 1942. Adèle was released the next day. Lèneke was in Ravensbrück, died shortly after her liberation in a sanatorium in Switzerland, because of the deprivation she had suffered. .

wall: left, row 01-02
∗ 1914-12-21
† 1945-05-03
Lübecker Bucht
Vaals - CPN - early resistance - unorganized resistance - Hendrik Servatius Jozef Senster was a miner. Arrested on fair Monday, June 23, 1941, a month and a half after the Germans invaded the Netherlands. He had organized a demonstration with a group of young people from Vaals. Then, in protest, they swept the street dirt in the direction of the German border. Two of the group were arrested. Hub Hermans was transferred to the Amersfoort concentration camp and later released. Hein ended up in Neuengamme near Hamburg. He had no success writing from the camp. Only one letter to a German address (in near Vaalserquartier) arrived.
In May 1945, the prisoners were transferred from Neuengamme to ships in the Bay of Lübeck. What the SS’s intentions were in doing so could never be clarified with certainty. The ships were bombed by the Allies on the assumption that they were troop transports, and perhaps that was exactly the idea behind it. Hein Senster was killed as a result.
wall: right, row 25-06
∗ 1887-07-14
Mheer (L)
† 1943-10-09
Fort Rhijnauwen, prov. Utrecht
Eijsden - early resistance - Group Erkens - Michiel Hubert Alphonse Smeets was a fruit grower and fruit merchant in Eijsden, neighbor and tenant of Raphael de Liedekerke and brother of the municipal secretary Hubert Smeets.
In the course of 1941 a resistance group emerged in Eijsden from the local concert band, see the introduction above the list of Eijsden’s fallen resistants. They were mainly occupied with smuggling people across the border who were wanted by the Germans, but also with intelligence work. Alphons Smeets often had to go to Belgium for his work.
Arrested as a result of the Hannibalspiel, an infiltration of the Marineabwehr (counterintelligence service of the German Navy in Groningen.
See also: Memorial to the fallen resistance fighters at Vroenhof, Eijsden..
wall: left, row 07-05
∗ 1892-08-27
† 1943-10-09
Fort Rhijnauwen, prov. Utrecht
Eijsden - early resistance - Group Erkens - C.H.A Smeets was municipal secretary and brother of Alphons Smeets. Member of the Belgian intelligence group Luc, section Renkin. He called in the help of J. Arpots, Jozef Partouns and J. Reintjens, three young people, one of whom worked at the Dutch Railways. They called themselves the "Orange Triangle". They noted down all details about the train traffic and passed on the data to Smeets, who typed them on cigarette papers at the town hall.
On 15 October 1942 arrested as a result of the Hannibalspiel, an infiltration by the Groningen office of the Marineabwehr, the counter intelligence service of the German navy. (By the way: Cammaert hoofdstuk II mentions two arrest dates. In an appendix he also mentions 7 October 1942). The court martial of the German air force imposed the death penalty on Smeets in Utrecht on 11 August 1943. In Eijsden the Hubert Smeetsstraat is named after him.
See also: Monument der gevallen verzetslieden in Vroenhof, Eijsden
wall: left, row 08-01
∗ 1916-09-09
† 1942-09-17
Heerlen - early resistance - Group Smit - police - Jef Smit from Roermond, before the war a professional soldier, chose after demobilization in July 1940 to join the police in Heerlen. He did not stay there for long. It was a thorn in his side that the public actions of N.S.B. members and other pro-German elements remained unpunished. When it also became clear that anti-N.S.B. sentiments had to be suppressed, he had had enough. He lost confidence in the police leaders and in the spring of 1941 he resigned. On 19 June he entered the service of the Oranje Nassau mine as a turner.
There he stole dynamite rods for committing acts of sabotage. (Cammaert II, p. 107)
He sought and found contact with former soldiers and others who thought as he did, in the mines and beyond. Thus was born the Group Smit.
Smit was shot and reburied on 17 May 1954 in Maastricht in grave R 20b at the Municipal Cemetery on Tongerseweg, circle of honor R: graves of 6 fallen resistance fighters from Limburg.
wall: left, row 19-02
Frank G.
∗ 1919-08-29
† 1944-04-04
Hulsberg - early resistance - Student - Student’s resistance. Law student, refused to sign the declaration of loyalty and joined the resistance movement (he mapped activities of the Germans at Dutch airports and passed them on to the allies), arrested on 08/12/1943, suspected of conspiracy. After staying in various prisons, he was eventually sentenced to death by a special court of war and then shot for illegal possession of weapons.
More in our story Resistance in Valkenburg
Frank G. Smits op de lijst van personen die tijdens de bezetting belangrijk waren voor Valkenburg.
wall: left, row 24-04
Gerard L.R.
∗ 1922-06-23
† 1945-01-21
Maastricht - Valkenburg - CPN - Jew - early resistance - press - Student HBS (high school). Listed in the Honor Roll of Victims 1940 – 1945, in the category resistance people. Moreover he had a Jewish father, Jacob Soesman. Mother: Christina Johanna Maria Prick
See also the site of Joods Monument: “Gerhard Lodewijk Robertus Soesman, who had attended commercial secondary school, lived in Maastricht. He worked in the underground for the Dutch communist party (CPN). He distributed papers, including De Vonk. Because of the V-Mann (informant) Engwirda, he was caught in Maastricht on 24 January 1942. He was locked up at the prison in Maastricht and subsequently deported to Auschwitz via Vught concentration camp.”
See also Genealogy Soesman
More in our story Resistance in Valkenburg
Gerard L.R. Soesman op de lijst van personen die tijdens de bezetting belangrijk waren voor Valkenburg.
wall: left, row 35-04
∗ 1916-07-03
† 1945-01-07
KZ Schömberg, KZ Natzweiler
Heerlen - early resistance - press - Group Smit - Former soldier and window dresser. At first, he distributed illegal magazines and self-printed leaflets supplied by Vicar E. Hennekens from Valkenburg. They received increasing support from young people, especially family members and close friends. By the end of 1940, the secondary school students A.J.A. Rameckers, P.L.W.A. Leclou and H.H. Baeten had formed a small resistance group (Cammaert Chapter II, pp. 109 -110). According to the prayer card, he was arrested on February 2,1942, and via Maastricht, Amsterdam, Amersfoort, Vught, Buchenwald, Natzweiler, Dachau, and Ottobrünn, he got to Dautmergen, where he died on January 6, 1945.
certificate of decease on
wall: left, row 19-03
Harrie /Harry
∗ 1917-08-24
† 1945-03-15
Hameln (D
Heerlen - early resistance - press - Ordedienst - Netw. Bongaerts - police - carillon - Former soldier and after his demobilization by the Germans in 1940 member of the mine police. Was involved, among other things, in acts of sabotage in the Oranje-Nassau Mine I (O.N. I) in Heerlen, which was uncovered by the SiPo. In June 1942, on the advice of police friends, he went into hiding in Baexem, but just continued to help fugitives. From the speech by Dr. Fred Cammaert at the unveiling of the memorial plaque at the Peace Carillon): “Under the inspiring leadership of Charles Bongaerts, he and other former military personnel devoted themselves to all manner of resistance activities, ranging from aiding Jews, Allied airmen, and those in hiding (the so called divers), to gathering weapons and intelligence information, to producing and distributing illegal magazines and acts of sabotage. As a result of infiltrating by provocateurs in German service, he was arrested on August 6, 1943.”
wall: left, row 19-05
∗ 1914-07-24
† 1942-09-17
Voerendaal - early resistance - Group Smit - The parental home of Theo (Theodorus Gerardus Johannes Peter) Treuen stood at Maasstraat 43 in Steyl. He worked in the butcher shop Leenders in Voerendaal and during the pre-war mobilization he was a soldier. During 1940 he was contacted by Jozef Smit, who had also been demobilized. Through Theo Treuen, the students Paul Leclou, A. Rameckers and H.H. Baeten were also included in the group Smit. (Cammaert II, pp. 109-110) An infiltrator betrayed the Smit group to the Germans. Theo was arrested in the butcher shop. On July 16, 1942, Smit and Treuen were sentenced to death in Amsterdam and the other members of their group to concentration camps.
wall: right, row 35-05
∗ 1917-10-08
† 1943-01-04
Maastricht - early resistance - Group Dresen - Douwe Verhagen was a professional sergeant in May 1940 at the enclosure dam, where the Dutch defenders defied the invading troops of Nazi Germany the longest. From the summer of 1940, he worked at the Caberg (Maastricht) border checkpoint. There was a decidedly anti-German mood. He was arrested on December 2, 1941.
wall: left, row 37-01
∗ 1918-11-10
† 1945-02-23
Heerlen - early resistance - press - Group Smit - Lambertus Arnoldus Vlemmings was a former soldier and after his demobilization by the Germans in 1940 parcel deliveryman at Van Gend & Loos. At the beginning of the war, he distributed underground magazines and leaflets printed by chapelain Hennekens from Valkenburg. “From the spring of 1941, the Smit group also focused on intelligence gathering and the acquisition and purchase of weapons, ammunition and explosives. Smit entrusted this task to L. Vlemmings.” (Cammaert chapter II, p.. 13) 1945 (Cammaert chapter II, p. 110.) Arrested on 02 February 1942, sentenced to 12 years in prison, died in Dachau on 23 February 1945.
wall: left, row 19-04
Hendrik Jacob
∗ 1883-09-14
† 1945-04-09
Grubbenvorst - early resistance - L.O. - priest - Catholic parish priest of Grubbenvorst and building parish priest in Grashoek, studied musicology in Italy and the United States. He was known as a very open-minded and culturally enthusiastic person. Already during 1941 and 1942, he began to help Jews in collaboration with the Amsterdam journalist and social democrat Mathieu Smedts, a native of the Peel village Grashoek, and his chaplain Jean Slots. An escape route was established from Amsterdam to Switzerland and hiding places were found in northern Limburg. Even after the arrest of Smedts (who survived the camps), contact with the Social Democratic group in Amsterdam was maintained. (Cammaert V, p. 423).
After the founding of the LO in 1943, Vullinghs and his group also joined. He led the local group together with H. Joosten. On May 1, 1944, Vullinghs was arrested on the street in front of the church.
According to Loe de Jong, he was one of the biggest organizers of help for pilots and people in hiding in the whole province of Limburg. The Jewish composer Hans Lachman from Berlin, who was in hiding in Grubbenvorst, wrote a Catholic requiem in honor of Father Vullinghs, probably in the 1950s.
wall: left, row 11-03
∗ 1917-09-07
† 1942-12-04
Maastricht - early resistance - Group Dresen - Customs officer, working at the Maastricht-Caberg border office. A strong anti-German mood prevailed there. He belonged to the RAF group, arrested 1 or 2 December 1941. (Cammaert hoofdstuk II, p. 96) Stumblestone or stolperstein Schildersplein 13, Maastricht
Monument in the Maastricht tax office
wall: left, row 36-05